Erling Rasmussen

Project Officer

Danish Army Command and Control Information System

Danish Division

Haderslev Kaserne

Louisevej 2A

DK-6100 Haderslev


+45 74224460






The need for command and control information system´s in modern armies are indisputable. The fact that armies normaly are not working alone, but in an inviroment with many different partners military as well as non-military makes the requirements to C2-systems different from the past.

The general development and the extending international engagement of the Danish Defence Forces has resulted in a need for improvement in the troop leading procedures of the operational staffs in order to provide the staff officers and commanders with better opportunities of making their decisions based on up-dated, consistent and well-structured data.


The Danish Army signed a contract for a command and control information system in 1998. The Danish Army Command and Control Information System (DACCIS) is meant to improve exchange of information among national and allied command posts. A high degree of interoperability has to be prepared already from the first phase. It was decided to use the Army Tactical Command and Control Information System (ATCCIS) data model, the ATCCIS Data Replication Mechanism and the planned dynamic contracting system in DACCIS as well as in future new or upgraded systems within the army.  This decision will give the Army the possibility to share information with all countries, which use the ATCCIS data model, and replication mechanism, but also gives the possibility to share information by using other methods such as NATO AdatP-3 or MIP formatted messages.

Also a decision on using the state of the art GIS products was made.


DACCIS phase 1 is ready and includes


Planning tools:


- NATO 5-point order with relevant overlay’s

- Order of battle management

-. Use of scanned and vector maps are supported by using Esri product´s. The system has capacity for analysis, map production etc

- Logistic tool

- Artillery tools

- Engineering tools


- Line-of-sight tool

- Area coverage tool

- Distance counter 



Operational tools:


- Tools for controlling the situation (overlay’s, possibilities to makes changes in order of battle etc.)

- APP6 A symbols


DACCIS phase 2 includes:


- Own/Opposite confrontation model

- Relative battle power (weighting own/opposite forces)

- “Priority target list”

- March planning

- Logistic planning

- Logistic “Stop-lights”

- 3D

- Threat domes for Anti Air systems

- Defining transit routes for aircraft’s and helicopters


and another 75 functionality’s


New GIS:

-         Arc View 8.1

-         ArcGIS Extentions (3D Analyst, Spatial Analyst, Geostatical Analyst, Military Analyst, Tracing Analyst etc.)

-         ArcSDE

-         LZW

-         MOLE

-         MrSID


Windows 2000





The Danish Army Command and Control Information System (DACCIS).

 DACCIS is the new developed flexible and multilevel army command and control information system with a graphical user interface and extensive use of geographical information systems.

DACCIS has been developed to create a modern, user-friendly system based on common-off-the shelf products in order to deliver a cost-effective platform to keep the product up-to-date with new emerging technologies.

Based on the fact that nearly everything in a data based system is possible, if money and time is available, the Commanders need to put on restrictions on the data flow in the field due to another fact, available bandwidth. Also overload of unnecessary information is a danger to a proper and successful outcome of an operation.



The propose of near all command and control systems are the same, namely


- To reduce time consumption

- To improve the basis for decisions.

-  To improve exchange of information.

- To improve handling of information.

- To modernise the presentation

    of information

-  To improve and extend the use of

    computer assisted exercises (CAX).



DACCIS is state-of-the-art and is geared for the future because of its four main features:

- The Land Command and Control Information Exchange Data Model (ATCCIS/MIP LC2IEDM)

- Real time information sharing using the ATCCIS Replication Model

- Geographical information System

- Commercial-off-the-shelf products.


The main purpose of DACCIS is to provide an instant and commonly recognised land picture of the battlefield integrated into a full capability core system.


The system includes functionalities within

- C2 operations

- C2 intelligence

- C2 fire support

- C2 air defence

- C2 engineering

- C2 helicopters

- C2 logistics

- C2 communication



DACCIS does not include a physical communication system of its own, but is expected to be integrated into an existing defence or public communications system.



The DACCIS Command and Control (C2) application is made to support the planning and the control of Army operations from brigade level and up. In order to do so, the DACCIS system has information about

- the types of resources (personnel, equipment, units etc.)

- the types of control features (areas, points, lines etc.)

- APP-6A military symbols for land based systems

- the actual status for resources

- geographic information.


The DACCIS C2 interface is based on the Microsoft Windows Graphical User Interface which is common and easy to use to most users world-wide.


When using DACCIS in the planning or controlling (execution) phases, different types of scenarios are created and used dynamically. All information in DACCIS is stored in the ATCCIS based database.



Each branch in the staff has it own DACCIS area to work in. These areas (in the application called tab pages) are:


·           G1 Administration and Personnel

·           G2 Intelligence

-           UAV Operations

·           G3 Operations

-           Planning

-           Fire Support

-           Air Defence

-           Helicopter Operations

-           Engineers

-         NBC

·           G4 Logistics

·           G5 Civilian and Military Corporation (CIMIC)

·           G6 Communication


All information from one Headquarters (HQ) is saved at the same location (server) and is accessible by other branches inside the HQ complex. For instance, if G3 is adding a new phase line to the operations overlay, the phase line will appear at the G4 Logistics overlay automatically.


Information between Headquarters will be replicated according to the agreement between the two HQs. It is also possible to subscribe for information from another branch tab page. An example of this could be that Fire Support wants information about a specific operational area on their Fire Support overlay. All changes made by the G3 Plan will be reflected in the Fire Support tab page if that particular area is chosen (G3 Plan still owns the area).


Each branch in the staff has a tab page for planning purposes. Here it is possible to plan for operations in the future and furthermore, it is possible for each member of the staff to work on different operation plans.


The textual part of the operations order (OPORD) is implemented in DACCIS according to NATO STANAG 2014. Several staff members can work simultaneously in the textual part of the OPORD while the staff officer, who is responsible for the OPORD, can view the progress.


Each branch has its own situation tab page when a plan is being executed. This situation tab page is based on the plan for the ongoing operation. It is possible for each user to view the operational situation at the other branches.


Reports according to NATO APP-9 are implemented in DACCIS and will be replicated to other HQs according to agreement. Specific reports (e.g. national) can also be implemented in the application.


All information in DACCIS can be printed. Overlays (information based on the situation or planning part of each branch in the staff) can be printed with or without underlying map information or it is possible to print maps without operational information. This is very useable for operations in parts of the world where map information is only available in a data format.




DACCIS general functionality

Situation reports

·           Journals for each branch and the Headquarters

·           Manoeuvre sketches

·           Staff workflow management


Administration and Personnel

·           Personnel changes


·           G2 Intelligence

·           Order of battle

·           Situation

·           G2 assessment

·           Enemy courses of action

·           Enemy unit status

·           UAV operations (integration to ATCCIS based UAV system)



·           Planning

-           Operational objects (objectives, direction of attack etc.)

-           Own courses of action

-           Confrontation of own and enemy forces


·           Fire support

-           Fire positions areas

-           Automatically generated fire position suggestions

-           Artillery coverage

-           Command relations between artillery units


·           Air defence

-           Fire positions

-           Air defence coverage

-           Transit routes

-           Threat domes




·           Helicopter operations

-           Antitank helicopter (ATH) positions

-           Helicopter routes

-           Low level flight route suggestions


·           Engineers

-           Engineer objects (minefields etc.)

-           Terrain analysis

-           Barrier reporting area/lines

-           NBC (integration)

-           Engineer equipment and material status

-           Engineer work calculations

-           Mines and demolition status and reports


·           G4 Logistics

·           Logistic objects (supply areas, field dressing stations, main supply routes etc.)

·           Road and movement planning

·           Logistic order of battle

·           Consumption and status of equipment and material


Civilian and Military Corporation (CIMIC)

·           CIMIC objects



·           Communication objects (radio link nodes, telephone lines etc.)

·           Radio frequencies administration

·           Code word administration



The LC2IEDM is a data model developed by several NATO countries in the ATCCIS Community and the model contains structured tactical data elements agreed upon by United States, UK, The Netherlands, Portugal, Italy, Norway, France, Germany, Canada, Czech Republic, Poland, Turkey, Spain and Denmark.

The LC2IEDM is expected to be the land component in the NATO corporate data model.

The main backbone behind the data model is an agreed number of tactical data that are covering the information that are used in the area from Battalion through Brigade and Division to Corps level.


The real time information sharing is provided through the ATCCIS Replication Mechanism (ARM). This mechanism is developed to serve under conditions where communications are not stable, such as under battlefield conditions where the field Headquarters are moving constantly.


Whenever the moving Headquarters have occupied their positions and the communications are re-established, the replication mechanism automatically ensures that the missing information is replicated and then updates the actual recognised land picture.


The replication mechanism also ensures interoperability with other co-operating or coalition forces operating in the same area if their systems are based on LC2IEDM.



Using the Dynamic Contracting System it is possible to decide exactly which information that have to be shared from unit to unit. This system takes it's basic in the operational functional areas. To that part filters dealing with area, unit, time and friend/foe are added.


The integrated GIS come from Esri, the global supplier of GIS products. Among others, DACCIS has in it's phase 1 integrated

- MapObjects

- ArcView

- Spatial Analyst

- Image Analyser.


Based on the ATCCIS data sets, the GIS performs the

- overlays

- unit symbols

- impact zones

- transportation routes etc.

The Danish Army has already decided to implement (from November 2002) ArcGis to ensure that the future is covered.

The new GIS includes:

-         Arc View 8.1

-         ArcGIS Extentions (3D Analyst, Spatial Analyst, Geostatical Analyst, Military Analyst, Tracing Analyst etc.)

-         ArcSDE

-         LZW

-         MOLE

-         MrSID


DACCIS gives the units the possibility to scan, georeference and use paper maps in the system. Also production of maps to units without DACCIS is possible.

Data collection and handling in the field is included.

Geographical data are stores in a special database, due to the fact that we are talking about enormous amount of data. As an example the Danish Division with an area of responsibility that includes Denmark, Germany and Poland has to handle data similar to 600 CD-Rom's.



The basic platform including hardware and software is based on commercial-off-the-shelf products from suppliers represented globally. At the moment, the system is based on the Windows NT platform, but it has been decided to change to Windows 2000.


The use of Microsoft products makes the system very user-friendly and easy to learn, as most of the users are familiar with this product suite and can recognise the graphical user interface.


COTS products keep the system costs at a moderate level because these products generally cost less than traditionally developed C2 Systems. It ensures however also, that the lifetime of the system and it functionalities will remain valid over a long period of years as the systems architecture is easy to maintain and enhance with emerging technology.


Included as hardware is scanners, plotters for map production.


The system will in it's end state consist of up to 200 servers and 1000 workstations.



It was a requirement that the system should be easy to use both on user and management side. The system is created in a way that an end user will be trained for a max. of 3 days and a system manager in max. of 20 days.

The reason for choosing this way of training is.

60 % of the personnel on Div-level and 50% of the personnel on Bde-level is reserve personnel, which means that they will be present one to two times a Year.












Major Erling Rasmussen is the operational project officer of the Danish Army Command and Control Information System (DACCIS). He has worked on this project, which will give the Danish Army a very advanced C2 system within the next three years, for the last five years. He is responsible for the operational and GIS requirements in the project. He was called for this position on the background as a former, Acting Chief of Staff G2 at Divisional level, second in command at the Danish Army tactical Trainer/Army Combat School and other positions in the Army HQ and Division HQ. He is a member of the NATO Land Group 1, Multilateral Interoperability programme (MIP) community (Operations Group) and observer in The MIP Management Group. He is the Danish Defence Official presenter of the DACCIS project.