WALEED K ALJASSIM
NEW MASTER PLAN FOR KUWAIT USING GIS. Post liberation Kuwait is facing many challenges, particularly with reduced economic circumstances and a transformed population structure and work force. There is now a more urgent need to establish a systematic database using computer technology and to relate urban data together, than recognized before the invasion. The new Third Kuwait Master Plan Project will guide the development of Kuwait over the next twenty years, using GIS technology as a tool for the preparation of development plans and for urban management. Policies and proposals will be presented through GIS in an easy-to-access form which can help guide day-to-day decisions. This paper outlines some of the methodologies and experience gained through the 3KMP GIS Project in Kuwait. INTRODUCTION The State of Kuwait has a long history of active use of physical development planning. It is now more than forty years since the first Kuwait Master Plan, 1952 laid down the essential principles that have been followed ever since. These principles and a succession of master plans and reviews have helped guide the development of Kuwait from a small mud brick town of 75,000 persons to today's contemporary metropolis of 2 million persons. Before the review of the Kuwait Master Plan in 1989 - 90, the need to establish a systematic database using computer technology was recognized by Kuwait Municipality. At that time a utility and data management project (KUDAMS - Kuwait Utility and data Management System) was nearing completion. This hadbeen conceived as a large-scale utility management project derived from field survey and aerial photography, implemented on Intergraph equipment basically as a CAD-system for access to public utility data. Disruption caused by the Iraqi occupation and its aftermath has been a prime factor in aborting many projects. Among them the Kuwait Master Plan Review and the KUDAMS project. In post-liberation Kuwait Municipality recognized that it was no longer sensible to carry out a further review of the Master Plan, instead a new comprehensive development planning project was required in view of the transformation in Kuwait. Principally in terms of demographic composition and economic structures. Following a short initial assessment study in 1992, to identify and prepare data needed for the new Master Plan, Kuwait Municipality formed a team associated with a local consultants (SSH- Salem Al-Marzouk & Sabah Abi-Hanna) to prepare a wholly new Third Kuwait Master Plan (3KMP). This furnished an opportunity to embody GIS technology as an integral part of the new master plan. 3KMP GIS METHODOLOGIES The new Master Plan will provide a comprehensive frame work for physical development planning within Kuwait. Its policies and proposals will help guide day-to-day decisions on short term as well as long term development issues. The term master plan is conveniently used to describe a sequence of plans at three principal levels, each covering a different area with different objectives. These include : A National Physical Planning Strategy, covering the state of Kuwait, A Metropolitan Area Structure Plan, covering the urban area between Jahra and Mina Abdulla and Kuwait Town local plan covering the city center within First Ring Road. The GIS installation reflects the basic three component plans in terms of how population, employment and building data are held and can be displayed or interrogated. At national level, data are held at governorate (Muhafadah) level. At Metropolitan level area and data are held at neighborhood (Mantiqa)_ and block (Qita’a) level. Full detail will only be in Kuwait Town at plot or parcel Qaseemah) level. Ultimately, the Kuwait GIS will be extended to plot level for the entire country but for short term the 3KMP GIS is seen as a pilot project. Therefore, the GIS installation for 3KMP GIS was seen as a modest starting point for a national GIS that Kuwait needs. It is being deliberately limited within the duration of 3KMP but on the other hand it is being designed for flexible operation and incremental expansion as needed. THE SYSTEM Following an initial study a system design study was adopted where a Sun Sparc Station Model 61 desk-top server (8GB data storage) and three Sun Sparc station, 5 work stations (1GB data storage) were allocated for the project team operating with three ArcInfo version 7.0 licenses (including Arc Grid and Arc Scan). While this is basically a stand-alone operation, it also benefits from the consultant's office network linking CAD computers and peripherals. This means the project director and manager and other senior project staff use Arc View version 2.1 and are able to access the main GIS data base from their desktops. DATA LAYERS The Satellite imagery provides a detailed pictorial backdrop as the base layer in the GIS. The converted and simplified KUDAMS data set then provides the second layer superimposed over it, utilizing the topographical and utility survey mapping. An acceptable level of registration has been achieved between the two datasets, thanks to their common KTM (Kuwait Transverse Mercator) coordination system. The third fundamental layer is that of current land use. This is derived from planning data. The layer is being created in-house through modification of the ArcTools graphic user interface and head up digitization over the satellite imagery which is proving very successful. A fourth layer showing defacto zoning information will be added by urban planners working directly from existing parcel plans, which will provide a further layer to facilitate planning analysis down to the block level. The GIS will be utilized in its initial phases as a means of analyzing and reaching decisions on urban planning issues. It will then also be used to communicate the resulting policies and the proposals by the master plan. Therefore, in addition to the purely descriptive and existing factual layers incorporated in the GIS, new predictive layers will be added dealing with each of the planning levels referred to earlier. There will be two such layers initially that illustrate the desired future conditions throughout Kuwait. The first predictive layer will incorporate the policies and proposals related to particular localities. In part, this layer will identify the pattern of future land use and show the measures to be undertaken to achieve it. The second layer will be a comprehensive zoning information covering all parcels of land in Kuwait. DATA ACQUISITION AND CONVERSION Data acquisition is widely recognized to be the most significant aspect of creating a GIS application interms of time, money and effort. The approach which was followed in this project was no different to any other GIS project in Europe or US. Data conversion took place to transfer KUDAMS data from the Intergraph platform to ArcInfo. The final result of the conversion was the creation of a large scale database consisting of twenty six thematic layers. Each of these contains a set of coverage’s, storing information for every governorate covering the metropolitan area . MAP PRODUCTION One of the important objectives of 3KMP is the adoption of GIS technology as a tool for the preparation of plans as well as for urban management. Therefore, the final phase of the Master Plan will focus on the presentation of operational plans electronically for wide-spread access and use through PCs. it is intended that each of the component plans listed earlier, as well as the zoning plans, will be available for direct map production from the GIS. CONCLUSIONS The objective of GIS implementation is not simply to create a digital copy of the existing manual systems. The 3KMP GIS project aims to develop a new more efficient and more functional automated system for mapping, records management, planning and other functions. This will help improve Kuwait Municipality's ability to accomplish the goals of the new Third Kuwait Master Plan. GIS will give the technical department's a complete set of land use and zoning maps, together with development plan information, either electronically or as hard copy print. A special user interface will facilitate the selection of relevant mapping or information needed. The Kuwait Municipality will have a powerful tool for wide-ranging analysis of planning and urban development. GIS will lie at the heart of the monitoring and review process of the Master Plan. The 3KMP GIS project is the first stage of the creation of a comprehensive GIS System, for which all Kuwait Municipality technical departments will benefit, and eventually contribute to the development of a national GIS.