Note: This paper was presented in 1997. The Land Use Planning Education Project (LUPEP) has more current project information on their Web site at; they also have a Yahoo Group site for e-mail lists:

Terrie Cooper, Project Director
Eric Fowler, GIS Consultant
Tosca Hoffmann, Graduate Student
Gary Korb, Project Assistant

Land Use Planning Project

I. Project Abstract

"GIS (Geographic Information Systems) is entering the K-12 environment without any set of resources or curricular materials, education or training for teachers. This situation can be improved, but few people have taken up the challenge."

-Jennifer Winn, Mapping Sciences Lab, Texas A&M University

Riveredge, in working for its mission of providing leadership in Environmental Education has stepped forward to accept this challenge. Terrie Cooper and Tosca Hoffmann, Riveredge staff, Gary Korb from Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission (SEWRPC/UW-Extension), and Eric Fowler, GIS specialist, have forged a partnership to develop a curriculum for High School students that focuses on land use planning issues in southeastern Wisconsin, utilizing GIS as a classroom tool. As an educational tool, GIS has been shown to encourage critical and creative thinking, and develop problem solving skills for its users. This tool can also be used to help students practice the process of scientific investigation and resolve environmental issues.

During a two-day teacher in-service in February 1997, the curriculum, first of its kind, was introduced to 11 teachers from the Milwaukee River Watershed in Wisconsin. Participating Year One schools include the following Milwaukee Public High Schools: Riverside University, Rufus King, Vincent and Washington and the following area high schools: Cedarburg, Grafton, West Bend East, University School of Milwaukee, Marquette and Nicolet.

The two week long Land Use Planning curriculum for High School students encompasses the following topics: Introduction to Planning Principles, Exploring the Tools Available for Planning, Developing a Land Use Plan and Implementing the Plan.

Thanks to the generous funding support of The Milwaukee Foundation and the Wisconsin Coastal Management Program, we have purchased reference books, topographic and aerial maps, stereoscopes, GIS software Arc View 3.0 and global positioning units for the participating schools. Digitized data sets of the Town of Saukville have also been provided to participating schools by the Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission. This digitized data set includes: soils, land use, transportation, environmental corridors, natural areas, vegetation type, wetlands, topography, bedrock, population figures and urban growth.

As part of the project, students are developing a Land Use Plan for the Year 2010 for the Town of Saukville. Student Land Use Plans will be brought together and shared May 20, 1997 with SEWRPC officials and educators who will critique student plans and evaluate the Land Use Planning Project for Year One.

"Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful committed citizens can change the world. Indeed, it's the only thing that ever has."

-Margaret Mead

A. Project Need

Urban growth is expanding in Southeastern Wisconsin at an unprecedented rate. Overall, the average annual population growth rate for the region (Washington, Ozaukee, Milwaukee, Waukesha, Kenosha, Racine, and Walworth counties) has been about 3% . This small increase in population cannot begin to account for the changes seen across the regional landscape, and upon our highways.

Population growth, instead, is reflected in a rapid decentralization of both people and urban development. A population the equivalent of the City of Racine, left Milwaukee County between 1970 and 1980. During this time, the suburban counties grew rapidly, particularly Washington and Waukesha counties. One of every 2 people added to the Southeastern region were in these counties. Washington County grew 67.7 % and Waukesha grew 42.1% in the past 25 years. Washington County is Wisconsin's most rapidly growing county.

This geographic redistribution of people is the most important cause of the dramatic land use changes and environmental issues taking place in our region. The Southeastern Wisconsin region has added only 10% more people to its population since 1963. But we also:

If these trends continue, our land use problems will only increase. We need to work towards developing a population who will make new lifestyle choices that work to protect the quality of our environment in Southeastern Wisconsin. By understanding and analyzing the nature of these demographic trends, a community can more intelligently choose and plan the direction it wishes to take.

According to the Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission (SEWRPC) education is an important key to this process. Research has shown that the most effective way to begin such change is through the process of educating our children, the future decision makers and leaders of tomorrow.

To address the critical need of educating future environmental decision makers about the important role of developing and implementing a comprehensive land use plan in Southeastern Wisconsin, Riveredge Nature Center formed a consortium in 1996 to develop an educational program for high school students focused on Land Use Planning. The consortium includes: Riveredge Nature Center (Project Director), the University of Wisconsin Extension, the Department of Natural Resources, the Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission, and the UW-Milwaukee Geography Department.

The project will involve students, educators, business and industry professionals, and government officials in a collaborative effort to develop student involvement in the process of land use planning through environmental analysis. Students will develop increased competencies in problem solving, analysis, communications, ecology, economics, civics, geography/geology, sociology, and language arts.

This project will serve 840 high school students over the two year implementation period. Students participating in the project attend high schools in the six county area of Milwaukee, Ozaukee, Racine, Walworth, Washington and Waukesha.

B. Project Goals

The goals of the Land Use Planning Educational project are:

1. To utilize Riveredge Nature Center's existing network of the "Testing the Waters" program, a collaborative endeavor between public, private and educational institutes, to link diverse schools and communities together -- rural, suburban and city -- through the common thread of the Milwaukee River watershed,

2. To develop an awareness in teachers and students about the importance and complex nature of land use planning,

3. To develop teachers and high school students to have competencies in: techniques for gathering environmental, demographic, transportation and economic data; using data to design models for futures land use planning; defending their models at an annual student land use forum with public officials, planners, and environmental groups,

4. To utilize state of the art technologies including: Geographical Information Systems, map-making, Computer Models and the Internet Computer Network; to facilitate data collection, communication and cooperation in land use planning by students,

5. To work cooperatively with public, private and educational institutes to increase student problem solving skills and to encourage an interdisciplinary focus (social, political, economic and ecological) to the complex issue of land use planning in Southeast Wisconsin,

6. To develop a citizenry who are competent to take active and responsible steps to resolve complex socio-environmental issues.

C. Methodology

Riveredge is the Project Director of the consortium of private and public leaders offering the "Testing the Waters" program. Students and teachers work together in monitoring nonpoint source pollution and sharing this information with community leaders through the Internet. Testing the Waters has provided hands-on experience to over 18,000 students from 40 area high schools and middle schools since 1990 and has become a national model.

The Testing the Waters consortium saw the need to expand the TTW program into a broader base view of the watershed. Water quality is a reflection of land use and it is imperative that students understand the land use planning process to more effectively work towards resolving water quality issues facing the Milwaukee River Watershed.

Utilizing the existing network for the "Testing the Waters" project, Riveredge will implement the Land Use Planning Educational project over a two year period with a total of 20 High schools from Milwaukee, Ozaukee, Racine, Walworth, Washington and Waukesha counties. The project has been piloted with ten schools in the 1996-1997 school year. An additional ten schools will be brought in for the 1997-1998 school year for a total of twenty participating schools. All targeted schools currently utilize the "Testing the Waters" curriculum and are knowledgeable about Riveredge, the collaborative education method employed, and have successfully integrated TTW into their classroom curricula.

D. Project Timeline

Project Task/Work Product Timetable Responsible Party
Implement curriculum October 1996 through May 1997 Project Director, participating schools
Conduct training Oct-96 Project Director, Steering Committee
Organize and conduct Student Congress May-97 Project Director, Steering Committee, participating schools
Evaluate Year One Jun-97 Project Director, Steering Committee, participating schools
Obtain agreement from remaining twelve schools from TTW network for 1997/98 school year implementation Apr-97 Project Director
Refine curriculum based on evaluation July 1997 through September 1997 Project Director, teachers from five identified schools
Complete Annual Report for distribution Sep-97 Project Director, Steering Committee

E. Year One Accomplishments

· Worked with aforementioned Land Use Planning Steering Committee members to develop goals, objectives and timeline for Land Use Planning program.

· Selected ten high schools from "Testing the Waters" Network to become pilot schools for implementation of land use planning curriculum during the 1996/97 school year (see Appendix A).

· Developed with teacher involvement the land use planning curriculum for high school students. (see Appendix B).

· Scheduled a two day in-service for selected Land Use planning pilot schools (see Appendix C).

· Purchased computer equipment, Arc View 3.0 GIS software, stereoscopes, GPS units and curriculum materials for training and implementation of Land Use planning program.

· Obtained Land Use digitized data sets from Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission (see Appendix D).

· Implemented land use planning curriculum and conducted training Sat. Feb. 1 and Thurs. Feb 6, 1997, for pilot schools (see Appendix E).

· Held a teacher feedback session Monday, March 17, 1997, to evaluate program progress, difficulties, needs (see Appendix F).

· Will organize and conduct a Land Use Planning Forum on Tuesday, May 20, 1997, where Regional Planners from SEWRPC and educators will evaluate student Land Use Plans for the Town of Saukville.

· Evaluate Year One Land Use Planning Program.

· Refine curriculum based on first year evaluations by teachers, students and Steering Committee members.

F. Project Goals for Year Two are to:

· Refine the Land Use Planning curriculum, based on the evaluations by Year One teachers, students, and the Land Use Planning Steering Committee.

· Invite an additional ten schools into the program for the 1997-98 school year, for a total of twenty participating high schools.

· Develop and implement a four-day in-service for teachers for University credit, that will provide teachers with the training, curriculum and resources needed to implement the Land Use Planning Project in their schools during the 1997-98 school year.

· Present and publish this project at the Environmental Systems Research Institute's User Conference, July 8-10, 1997, in California.

· Provide on-going support through monthly newsletters, telephone calls and classroom visits for the twenty participating schools in the project.

· Organize and conduct a Land Use Planning Forum where students and teachers from participating schools will come together with SEWRPC officials and educators to critique Student Land Use Plans to land use issues identified in their community.

· Evaluate Year Two Land Use Planning Educational Program; refine the curriculum as appropriate.

· Publish and sell the curriculum nationally to other educators interested in teaching about Land Use Planning and the utilization of GIS as a powerful educational tool.


Table of Contents

Appendix A Land Use Planning Project Description

Appendix B Land Use Planning Curriculum

Appendix C Outlines used for Training

Appendix D Obtaining the Data

Appendix E Summary of Training

Appendix F Summary of Teacher Feedback Meeting

Appendix G Newsletter

Appendix H Staff Involved in Project

Appendix A

Land Use Planning Education Project

Memorandum of Understanding

Building on the foundation established with the highly successful "Testing the Waters" project, a "Land Use Planning Education" project is being launched for high school students. The project will involve students, educators, business professionals, and government officials in a collaborative effort to develop student involvement in the process of land use planning through environmental analysis. Students will develop increased competency in problem solving, analysis, communications, ecology, economics, civics, geography, geology, sociology and language arts.

By focusing on land use concerns, this project will broaden the students' perspective of the environment and their responsibilities to it rather than perpetuating views which are victims of "tunnel vision." This project is based on the belief that:

· Land use planning is essential to balance human population expansion and urban growth to ensure a quality environment for future generations.

· Education is a key element in effective land use planning.

· It is imperative that citizens be aware of the relationships between land uses and environmental quality to make informed decisions. Reliable information and data are needed to make sound decisions.

· Since many land use planning determinations are made at the local government level, citizen input into the planning process is essential: to ensure that land use plans represent the greatest possible agreement amongst area citizens, are subsequently supported, and address environmental impacts.

· Land use decisions must be made on a regional basis, as environmental and other concerns know no political boundaries.

To address the critical need of educating future environmental decision makers about the important role of developing and implementing a comprehensive land use plan in Southeastern Wisconsin, Riveredge Nature Center, the University of Wisconsin Extension, the Department of Natural Resources and the Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission have joined forces to develop an educational program for high school students. Very few schools around the United States have attempted to develop a land use project like this.

Project Timeline

The Land Use Planning Education Project will begin in January/February 1997 with a 2 day expense paid training and curriculum development workshop. Teachers involved in the curriculum development and training will be expected to participate in implementing and evaluating this two-week curriculum by May 30, 1997.

Pilot schools participating in the project will receive:

·SEWRPC's very comprehensive Land Use Planning Data set for the study area

(A copyright license agreement must be signed by all teachers),

·Loan of the field equipment, maps, curriculum, stereoscopes and resources needed for completing the land use planning project,

·Any bus, training and sub costs associated with the project for Year One,

·Computer software & upgrade costs, training and technical support to work with the ArcView Geographic Information System,

·Guaranteed involvement in the Year Two project.

As a participant in the project teachers agree to:

·Assist in developing, implementing and evaluating, with the project staff, the land use planning curriculum for high school students. The Year One project will focus on developing a Land Use Plan for the Town of Saukville.

·Attend the land use planning forum on a day to be decided in May with SEWRPC staff, county and city planners, GIS specialists and environmental leaders to present, defend and evaluate student land use planning models for the Town of Saukville.

·Evaluate Year One Land Use Planning Program.

I, __________________________________________________(print name)

of _______________________________________________________ High School have read the above Memorandum of understanding between the Land Use Planning Consortium Members and the participating schools and agree to meet the responsibilities outlined above.

Signed __________________________________________Date______________________

Appendix B

Land Use Planning Curriculum

Table of Contents

Below is a listing of the Table of contents for the curriculum booklets given to each teacher.

Suggested Teaching Outline For Land Use Planning Unit

Why Plan?



How Plan?



Tools for Planning



Implementing a Plan


Student Project Assignment

Land Use Planning Education Project

Principles to Plan By

Parameters for Planning for Town of Saukville for Year 2010 (from Saukville Survey)

Tools for Planning

Project Outline:

1. Each School will be assigned an area of the Town of Saukville to plan for the Year 2010.

2. Given the above parameters, what could your area accommodate in terms of future development, to meet the Town's needs by the Year 2010?

3. Plans will be presented by each school team (a teacher and 6 selected students) reviewed and defended in front of a panel of SEWRPC planners, UW-Milwaukee Urban Planning professors and graduate students, UW-Extension staff and GIS specialists, during one day in May (the weeks of May 12-24).

Questions and considerations to help guide student planning

1. What are the projected population statistics for the area in 2010, on what are they based?

2. What is the anticipated industrial and commercial growth? What planning is being done to provide for this growth?

3. What areas of the community are destined for a different land use in the future? Why?

4. What will happen to the people and structures in existing areas that will experience land use changes?

5. Where may new expressways, highways, bridges and other new roads need to be constructed?

6. Have areas been designated in the town to accommodate the following? (Or should they occur in nearby villages instead?)

a. New schools

b. Libraries and other cultural sites

c. Parks, open spaces, and recreation areas

d. Industrial development sites

e. Commercial shopping centers

f. Low income housing areas

g. Police, fire, and other municipal service areas

h. Mass transit facilities

i. Preservation of agricultural land and environmental corridors

7. What are the estimated costs for expanding existing facilities? Who will pay for these improvements? How much of the funding will come from the local, state and federal levels?

8. What trends could impact your planning decisions? For example; cost of gasoline, commuter trends and other demographics.

9. What types of zoning tools are currently available in the Town that could be used in your planning? What specific laws are in effect to prevent building in floodplains; to control land erosion; to prevent unnecessary clearing of trees and other vegetation, and to control diversion of or tampering with streams and rivers?

10. Does the zoning law encourage cluster housing?

11. Does the present tax structure penalize owners of open lands (ie. Farmers)? Has consideration been given to tax relief for farmland?

Use the following questions as a guide for considering some of the environmental impacts your plans may have upon adjacent land, the community at large, and nearby communities. Consider both the short-term and long-term impacts.

Air Pollution

Water Quality and Management




Appendix C

GIS training for Saturday Feb. 1st, 1997
8:30 am - 4:00 PM

8:30 - 9:00 am
I. Introduction/Overview

9:00 - 9:20 am
II. Introduction to Maps
A. Uses
B. Types

9:20 - 10:00 am
III. Introduction to GIS
A. What is GIS?
B. Purpose
C. Components

10:00 - 10:10 am Break

10:10 - 12:00 am
IV. ArcView Basics
A. Product overview
B. ArcView interface

V. Creating views and themes in ArcView
A. Views and themes
B. Working with shapefiles

12:00 - 12:30 PM Lunch

12:30 - 2:00 PM
VI. Working with Themes in ArcView
A. Modifying symbols with the Legend Editor
B. Managing theme display with theme properties

VII. The power of tables in ArcView
A. Working with tables
B. Building relationships between tables
C. Querying tables
D. Displaying statistical reports

2:00 - 2:15 PM Break

2:15 - 3:30 PM
VIII. Spatial query and analysis
A. Spatial query
B. Spatial Analysis
IX. Creating a map layout
A. Creating a layout
B. Frames

3:30 - 4:00 PM
IX. Close/Review - Assignment
A. Review ArcView concepts and tools
B. Assignment to test ArcView skills (will be reviewed on Feb 6)

Land Use Planning Education Project

Outline for Training

Thursday, Feb. 6, 1997

8:30 - 3:30 p.m. at Riveredge

8:30 - 9:00 am

I. Introduction to Land Use Planning Education Project Goals

A. Review Curriculum available for teaching Land Use Planning

B. Developing a Student Directed Plan

1. Challenge to develop a proposal for Town of Saukville future land use plan

2. Best solution to given scenario (population growth, housing needs, industry)

3. Plan reviewed, critiqued by SEWRPC and other planning officials in May

9:00 am - 11:00 am

II. Introduction to Planning

A. Historical Background (brief)

B. Why plan -- Unplanned growth, what problems it causes

-- The need for managed growth

(Examples of planning issues - look at newspaper clippings in area)

C. Type of communities (interconnectedness between decisions made by one community can have significant impact on another)

1. County

2. City/village/town

D. Impacts of unmanaged growth

1. Sense of place

2. Fiscal

3. Transportation

4. Social

5. Environmental

E. Objectives of planning

1. Sense of place; prevent sprawl

2. Cluster development/mixed use

3. Neotraditional towns

4. Farmland preservation

5. Natural resources/open space/environmental corridors

6. Housing

7. Other (social, economic, public health)

III. How do you develop a plan?

A. Overview of Process (relationship between planning & implementation)

1. Visioning; goals & objectives

2. Describing the community

3. Planning elements

4. Alternative analysis

Look at high/medium/low growth scenarios

Use centralized vs. decentralized plan

5. Citizen input in planning

IV. Implementing a Plan - the Ultimate Challenge of Planning

A. Introduction

1. Zoning

2. Building and Sanitary Codes

3. Fiscal devices

11:00 am - 12:00 pm

V. What you need to plan for Town of Saukville - Tools for Planning

A. Data & Tools - Where/how do you get data - tools?

1. Demographic trends

2. Analyzing fiscal impacts

3. Inventories of resources (Aerial maps, topographic maps, soils, waters)

4. GIS as a mapping/data management tool

5. Communication - data interpretation, community involvement (surveys)

12:00 - 12:30 Lunch

12:30 - 3:30 pm

VI. Bus trip to Town of Saukville

A. Review map types - what they interpret best

B. Practice using topographic maps, aerial maps w/stereoscopes to locate sites

C. Use GPS units to locate position on map

D. Ground truthing practice

Appendix D

Obtaining the Data

A. The Data

What we chose to have included in the data sets...
We wanted to have a large set of diverse data available for the teachers and students to utilize (see attached list of data sets, Table 1) By providing diversity, we offer the students opportunities to explore the data to solve unanswered questions about an area. Another important point to consider is they will have fewer limits placed on them with a narrow data set. The nature of the data will have bearing on the use of applications. The majority of the data had to be in digital format. This way, it is easy to access, manipulate, maintain, and share.

Potential Uses of the data...

Data Set Use at Neighborhood Level? Use Regionally? Source Objective
Soils YesYes SEWRPC View differences over space. See if surroundings affect soil.
Land Use (1990) YesYes SEWRPC Compare changes over years, maybe update current land use.
Transportation YesYes SEWRPC See effect on surrounding land use due to transportation network, as well as analyze network's layout.
Environmental Corridor YesYes SEWRPC Identify features that affect EC and what are some of the surrounding land uses (river, lakes, rail…).
Natural Area Yes SEWRPC Determine if surrounding land use affect Natural Area.
Vegetation Type Yes SEWRPC Determine if surrounding land use affect Vegetation.
Wetlands Yes SEWRPC Determine if surrounding land use affect Wetlands.
Uplands Yes SEWRPC Determine if Uplands affect land use.
Wildlife Habitat Yes SEWRPC Determine if surrounding land use affect Wildlife Habitat.
Depth to Bedrock Yes SEWRPC Determine if Depth to Bedrock affects land use.
Depth to Water Table Yes SEWRPC Determine if Depth to Water Table affects land use.
Well and Surface Points Yes SEWRPC Determine if Well & Surface points affect land use.
Water Elevation Yes SEWRPC Determine if surrounding land use affect Water Elevation.
Estimated Soil Percolation Yes SEWRPC Determine if surrounding land use affect Soil Percolation.
Census Block Groups Yes Census Use for aggregation/analysis of demographic data - detail.
Census Tracts YesYes Census Use for aggregation/analysis of demographic data - general.
Aerial Photos Yes SEWRPC Aid in determining land use.
Cadastre Yes SEWRPC See ownership at a broad level, i.e. government (local, state, federal), private, hospitals, schools, etc.
Hydrography YesYes SEWRPC Determine if surrounding land use affect hydrography.
City Forestry coverage Yes Milwaukee Determine if Forest coverage affects land use.
Topography Yes MCAMLIS Determine if topography affects land use.

Table 1

Students will learn what a specific data type could be used for, and how it relates to other data. The relationships of different data demonstrates the complexity of an area's characteristics. This allows them to become aware of what is next to what, or what is on top of what. For example, what type of soil comprises a wetland area? Would development of an industrial park generate pollution, discharge into a local river, affect that wetland area, and how so? This is a sample of possible questions that students will investigate. They will become more familiar with how data is collected, if it is current, and relevant to their needs.

Initially, our goal was to have all of these data types (see Table 1 above) tailored for 9 different schools participating in the project. The study area would be 1 square mile around each school, to keep the students physically close to their school for possible field data collection, and familiarity. Unfortunately, this was not possible. Due to: 1) the deadline that we required was too short (discussions with the planning commission took place in late December, and we required the availability of the data by early February). 2) The data coverage was not complete in all parts of the seven-county region. 3) In this first year, we decided that one data set would be more manageable.

With more investigation, the steering committee decided to have customized data sets, for each school, as a goal for the future. This way no one school has a richer data set than another. We researched the local area and concluded that one area, with all the data sets available, would be the best choice for the project. We chose the Town of Saukville.

The Town of Saukville is a geographic area that has a very complete set of data. The data has been recently collected and formatted, and covers both urban and rural land use types within a one square mile area. Each school would use this one site to study the different types of land use. The students will be able to analyze and interpret the data, and display their findings. The results should be interesting since there is an element of urban land use related with rural land use. Also, students participating in the project live in a variety of different locations within southeast Wisconsin. Where they live may influence their perspectives and decisions on how to develop a suitable land use plan.

We received the data from the Southeast Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission. The data came with an extensive data dictionary. We had to convert this data to ArcView 3.0 as shapefiles, as well as, overlay the attribute data. The origin of the data came with polygons in DXF format, and the attributes about the polygons as a point table with a centroid X, Y coordinate for the location in the polygon.

Currently, the codes for the data still have to be referenced in the data dictionary. Our goal is to place textual descriptions of the data set in the table so the students have information available to them. We have provided activities and suggested different uses for the data, but it is in the hands of the teachers and students on how they will utilize it and make informed decisions from it.

Data in ArcView format:

Urban - Shows historic urban growth by year.
Soils - Soil type
Natural Area Evaluation and Classification evaluates the diversity of plant and animal species. They include:


Suitability of soils for Conventional onsite sewage disposal systems - Unsuitable, Undetermined, Water, and Suitable

Suitability of soils for mound sewage disposal systems - Unsuitable, Undetermined, Water, and Suitable

Slope - Degree of Slope:
0-12, 12-20, 20 or greater, data not available, and surface water.

Land Use of 1990 and 1995
71 Classifications of land use, categorized into 9 major groups, including:
Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Transportation, Agricultural, Open Lands, Recreational

Environmental Corridors
Wildlife Habitat Areas, Lakes, Rivers, Streams, Wet, poorly drained or organic soils, Rugged Terrain, and high-relief topography, Woodlands, Prairies, Wetlands, Historic Sites, Natural and Scientific Areas, Parks and open space, Significant scenic areas and vistas

Suitability of soils for residential development served by public sanitary sewer service - Severe limitations, Moderate limitations, Slight limitations, Unclassified Soils, and Water

Water, Transportation, Civil Division

B. Issues with SEWRPC

SEWRPC is the provider of the data. They also contracted out some of the digitizing, making some of the data copyrighted. Due to this, we had to receive legal authorization for all 9 schools to use it, however, the project did get the data free. Receiving the necessary signatures took several weeks.

SEWRPC was very helpful in explaining the different types of data available and the some issues to keep in mind, such as, varying scales across the data sets. For example:
1980's Aerial photos available for some areas
1993 aerial for others (approximately 60% coverage)

Milwaukee County 1"=100' with 2' contours
Outside Milwaukee County 1"=200' with 2' contours

In 1998, the digital cadastre will be available. It is currently at 50% coverage. Also, some municipalities, such as the City of Milwaukee, do not line up with SEWRPC data.

Appendix E

Summary of the Training

A. ArcView 3.0

During the training session, it was apparent that it would be unlikely to convey all the information about ArcView 3.0 in one day. There were several problems. One being, the use of a different operating system, which slowed the progress of class. Another, trying to relay the concept of GIS in a short period of time. As a result, time was limited for questions to be asked, or answered. Naturally, this led to some teachers feeling a bit overwhelmed. One teacher made a succinct comment, " I thought we were learning a software package. It wasn't until later that I realized that this was just a tool."

The purpose of ArcView 3.0 is to be used as a tool for land use planning. We did not want the teachers to become expert users of the software, but he did want them to become acquainted with its capabilities and potential applications. Being an instructor, and a proficient user, he felt that many of the students would approach the software without hesitation. Eric felt that the teachers wanted to understand the software thoroughly. At the time, it was neither practical or necessary. During the training session, a mind set appeared to present, and it was addressed amongst educators at the 1996 Business Geographics Conference, teachers had to overcome not knowing as much as the students, as far as, the comfort level with the software is concerned.

Tosca and Kelly Leigh-Outobed, a graduate student in Urban Planning at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, assisted Eric in training the teachers on the ArcView 3.0 software.

The result from this class was that we do not, in the future, want to solely teach ArcView 3.0. Rather, include that training with the main purpose of the project, land use. Also, in the future we will use the actual data sets from SEWRPC in the training.

B. Curriculum

Eric and Tosca provided a more comprehensive list of resources available, and how they can be used. They included: aerial photos, soil maps, and topographic maps. It was also suggested to the teachers to have their students research the area, take photographs of the sites, scan them in to the computer, and link the photos to the geographic feature in ArcView 3.0. By doing this, the students could share their work interactively with students at the other schools via the web. The result would be an exciting activity for all the students and teachers involved.

With the capability of geocoding in ArcView 3.0, the students will be able to take inventories they create and match them to them to various databases (i.e. an inventory of homes on five acre lots matched to the street database). Other sources that can be geocoded were mentioned: street addresses, GPS points, USGS and other federal data available via the web (The teachers were provided with a list of relevant web sites).

Alternative ways to collect data, such as local surveys and community perceptions were addressed. The use of a hand-held GPS unit was also demonstrated.

A bus tour of the area (Saukville) was taken by the teachers who attended the training session. They were able to observe the diversity of the area; natural, farmland, residential, industrial, commercial, and recreational land uses. After the tour they compared aerial photos from the past three decades and saw how much change had taken place. They indicated that the bus tour allowed them to become acquainted with the area and helped them interpret and understand the aerial photos better.

C. Witnessing Progress in the School - March 27, 1997

Gary Korb from the Southeast Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission was a guest
speaker at Cedarburg High School. The discussion with students revolved around the
students' perceptions of what it takes to develop a land use plan.

Regarding Saukville, the students' perceived the residents and business owners to be
conservative, cautious, and of a rural mind set. Their perceptions are based on a survey
conducted by SEWRPC. The majority of the students found the results of the survey
conflicted with comments provided in the survey.

What do the students see happening?
-Preserving farmland, open space, environmental corridors.
-A rural area becoming more populated. As a result, there will be an increase in residential, commercial, and industrial growth. The question is "How will this affect the area?"
-How do the results of the local survey compare to surveys conducted at the national level?
-Why do people in Saukville respond to the questions in the survey the way they do?
-What issues do the respondents support, and why?
-How do these people react when an unfavorable action takes place that will cause
negative impacts to the area in which they reside and work?
-Would people be willing to change their habits in order to conserve on resources needed
by people in the community? For example, would people be willing to carpool to work to
conserve on gas to keep the quality of the air clean in the area.
-Do people really consider how their actions affect land use locally?
-How does volume of traffic affect local or regional land use?
-What are the negative aspects of land use planning?
-Trends-how do they develop?
-Use and compare various sources of data.
-What does a rural atmosphere really mean? Is there a real definition(s)?
-Interests vs. Actions. What are the compromises?
-Think of solutions.

From this map, the students can determine where suitable soil is located for development in relation to existing cropland. If a farmer decides to sell his farm, and the cropland is comprised of suitable soil, should the land be sold to have homes built on it, or should the land be preserved? This is one example of a land use planning decision that the students may be confronted with. Note: The blue area represents suitable soil and the pink area represents cropland.

Appendix F

Summary of Teacher Feedback Meeting - 3/17/97

A. Basic Reaction
Four of the teachers participating in the project were present. The overall reaction to the progress taking place on the project was positive. However, one major issue concerned the teachers, they did not have enough time to digest the curriculum and software within the past 6 weeks. The amount of time they are spending on the material is taking precedence over everything else they are doing. One teacher commented that he had become addicted to ArcView 3.0 software, and had to take himself off the computer because he was neglecting his other teaching responsibilities. They also commented that they were teaching the students about the basics of maps and how to use them, in addition to land use planning. Instruction of the ArcView 3.0 software is an important element, but has become secondary at this time.

Another concern is they feel uncertain about what the end product may be. They agreed that this remains to be seen. They did express their happiness with the progress being made on the project at the present time.

B. Problems
Lack of time. Again, they have a large amount of literature to read, learning and utilizing the different types of maps, and using the ArcView 3.0 software and GPS technology.

C. Successes
Feedback from the students regarding the work that has been done and readings from the GPS technology.

D. Needs
More time to learn and prepare, and specialized training aimed at the Saukville data set.


More emphasis on land use planning concepts and less on ArcView 3.0. Although, ArcView 3.0 is important and relevant.

-Dennis Boom from Cedarburg High School Cedarburg, WI
Grade level: Juniors and Seniors

Activities-using USGS maps, Topo maps, and aerial photos of Saukville to teach students
map types and interpretation. He had the students work in groups to measure the amount of area developed in Saukville. The students used a grid system to determine the square feet per acre and the percent of land developed for each year.

The students also had to determine the factors that cause change to the land. The students responded with an answer, saying that an increase in human population is the cause.

He had the students examine statistics from the data collected from a survey conducted by SEWRPC. From this information the students were able to determine trends about transportation uses, the local population, and to identify positive and negative opinions about land use planning in the area.

-Pat Casillo from Riveredge University High School Milwaukee, WI
Grade level: Freshman

Activities-The students were given maps to look at, from the state level, county level, and township level. This allowed them to see the difference in information and detail, not to mention scale.

She decided to introduce the schools participating in the program. She also covered the sources of information (literature, curriculum, etc.) she had received from the steering committee. She posed relevant questions to the students, "why plan?", "how to develop a good plan?", and "how would they implement a survey for the Village/town of Saukville?" The students were interested in conducting their own survey to feel better connected with the residents in the study area. However, it has been advised, due to political reasons not to proceed with an additional survey.

They worked with stereoscopes and the GPS unit. They had success with collecting readings from the GPS-7 satellite readings.

Doug Glasenapp-Rufus King High School Milwaukee, WI
Grade Level: Juniors and Seniors

Activities-He divided the an area (36 square miles) into 4 sections. Each group has individuals responsible for different land use practices-industrial and commercial development, environmental corridors, transportation network, residential development, etc. This gives the students the opportunity to learn how professionals tackle planning issues and how they decide on final decisions and plans.

He had the students learning about remote sensing, working with aerial photographs, topographic mapping, land allocation, and ground truthing.

Karyl Rosenberger-Nicolet High School Glendale, WI
Grade Level: Freshman

She has ArcView 3.0 loaded and is working on the rudiments for her students. She is interested in distance learning, and is supporting the idea of having them learn the concepts of land use planning first, then using the software as a tool.


At the end of the meeting, it was mentioned that it would be a good idea to have a Freshman/Sophomore and Junior/Senior classes. This way the knowledge would be passed onto the following class. This would make it a comprehensive course, and perhaps become more advanced for the students in the higher grades.

The overall reaction was outstanding. The teachers said the students really enjoy looking at them and working with them. They are learning a great deal from them. Imagine what it will be like when they actually get the opportunity to create one(s) of their own.

One quote was: "It is hard enough to get land use training across, let alone AV3 training". We believe that the teachers should let the students try it before evaluating the level of difficulty. We need the teachers to understand they do not need to be the experts of this technology. This was a topic addressed by the TERC group at the 1996 Esri User Conference, and mentioned by teachers at the Educational Track at the 1996 Business Geographics conference.

Appendix G - Newsletter

Vol. 1 No. 2 March 1997

Land Use Planning Education Project

Teacher meeting March 15 determines new direction

A great sharing session was held at Nicolet High School, Monday March 15. Thanks to all who participated. We learned how teachers were implementing the project in their classrooms, student reaction to the project and problems encountered. I will summarize our discussion and the teaching outlines and send them out to you next week.

Briefly, teachers and students enjoyed the mapping activities, evaluating land use trends from the SEWRPC data and graphs and using the aerial maps and Saukville Survey for examining the land use changes over the years. The use of GIS as a tool was still being explored and will be implemented by some over the next month. If you couldn't be at the meeting and want to send in your teaching summary and comments, I will share them with the rest of the group.

May 20 SEWRPC plan review postponed until Year 2
It was decided at our March 15 meeting that instead of having students design a Land Use Plan for Saukville to present to SEWRPC officials on May 20th, we instead will have each teacher decide how they want to handle designing a Saukville plan in their own teaching units. These plans would be shared with others at our evaluation session on May 20, 4-6 p.m. They will form the basis for next year's assignment.

Teacher Year 1 Evaluation and Sharing Session Planned for Tuesday, May 20, 4-6 P.M.
Folks felt we did not have adequate time this first year to bring students together with officials to evaluate plans. Instead, it was recommended that we have another Teacher meeting to evaluate the project's first year and share teaching outlines and planning projects. Since we have already blocked May 20 on our calendars, this will be our date. The purpose of this meeting is to evaluate the project, make recommendations for next year and share student Saukville plans from those schools who are able to develop them for Year 1. I will send out more details on this meeting.

Land Use Planning Training scheduled for June 23-26
I am seeking 1-2 credits from UW-M for the training. Riveredge will cover your tuition cost with part of the grant. 2 1/2 days will be focused on Land Use Planning concepts and curriculum, 1 1/2 days will be focused on the GIS training. This is for both Year 1 and Year 2 teachers. Year 1 teachers may chose not to attend the GIS training. I will follow up with a more specific training agenda and credit information.

Saukville Citizen Survey Raw Data enclosed
Gary has provided us the raw data from the Saukville Survey. You may want to let your students pour over the raw data and decide if the SEWRPC summary is an accurate representation of what citizens were saying. Teachers at the March 15 meeting thought this would be useful information to have.

Land Use Planning Project to be presented at Esri's User Conference in July
Tosca Hoffmann, Terrie Cooper and Eric Fowler have been selected to present and publish the Land Use Planning Education Project at the largest International GIS users conference, Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc., July 1997. We will be sharing with others how this project was conceived, funded, implemented and we will summarize its effectiveness. Your evaluations, ideas and input will be a part of the presentation. Anyone interested in co-presenting with us, our grant may be able to cover a part of the expenses? Thanks for working as partners with us in developing this first of its kind project.

Gary Korb available for Classroom Visits
Call Gary at SEWRPC 547-6721 if you would like to have him visit your class and expand on any of the Land Use Planning concepts covered in the training.

Funding available to cover a Town of Saukville Bus Tour
Let me know if you are planning a bus trip to the Town, Riveredge will reimburse you for the bus. If you would like a Land Use steering committee member to accompany your tour, give me a call. Gary or I can try and arrange to work with your group.

Appendix H

Staff Involved in Project

Project Staff and Qualifications

Terrie Cooper, Project Director, Director of Environmental Education, Riveredge Nature Center since 1992. M.S. Natural Resources Management/ Environmental Education, UW-Steven's Point 1989. B.S. Biology, Secondary Education, UW-Madison 1985. Wisconsin Teacher Certification in Biology/Life Sciences, Environmental Studies and Conservation, Grades 6-12. Board Chair of Wisconsin Association for Environmental Education. (414) 375-2715, Email:

Tosca Hoffmann, Graduate Student, Riveredge Teacher/Naturalist since 1993. Graduate student in Geography at UW-Milwaukee. B.S. Geography, UW-Milwaukee 1992. Her graduate thesis is the evaluation of the Land Use Planning Education Project. Email:

Eric Fowler, GIS Consultant, General Geographics. Masters Urban Planning, UW-Milwaukee, 1993, GIS Certificate 1993. (414) 332-7073, Email:

Gary Korb, Project Assistant, Education Specialist for UW-Extension and Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission since 1993. M.S. Regional Planning, UW-Green Bay, 1985.