Pal BOZO, Gabor KARIG, Tamas RACZ, Tibor TULLNER

The Integrated GIS of the Ministry for Environment and Regional Policy of Hungary

The Integrated GIS of the Ministry for Environment and Regional Policy of Hungary (MERP) was funded by the PHARE European Community assistance programme. It was implemented in the frame of the combined PHARE 303-802 project. The application was ordered and devised by the same Ministry and it was designed in co-operation between three companies as follows: Geological Institute of Hungary, ECOPLAN Environment & Landscape Planning / GIS Co. and Rudas & Karig Software Development, Trading and Services Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as MAFI, ECOPLAN and Rudas & Karig, respectively).

The development of the integrated GIS was preceded by a number of related projects including the acquisition and improvement of hardware equipment, the implementation of basic software as well as digitised topographic maps serving as the basis for installing the related application. The ArcInfo - ArcView - ORACLE environment was selected for the realisation of the project in a client-server architecture. It proceeded according to the traditional phases of analysing the equipment/software available and the user requirements, system design, software development, installation and training. It is composed of three sub-systems as follows:

- Environment Protection

- Nature Conservation

- Register

Apart from the Information Centre of the MERP the system is implemented at 22 other Central and Regional Authorities for Environment Protection and Nature Conservation all over the country. It serves as an inventory for analysis, modelling and decision making concerning the issues of environment protection and nature conservation.


Given the wide scope of the project embracing several disciplines as well as ministerial authorities, the authors consider it advisable to outline its preparatory phase in detail.

The idea of the improvement of the information infrastructure of MERP and its Regional Authorities dates back to the late 1980s. The opportunity for its realisation became evident in the early 1990s thanks to the funding of environmental projects in Hungary through the PHARE European Community Environment Programme. This programme targeted four priority areas:

- Strengthening the environment management capacities

- Air pollution abatement

- Municipal solid waste management

- Nature conservation management and habitat reconstruction

Devoted to a common purpose several individual but interrelated projects have been launched in the frame of this programme. One of them was the combined project 303: MERP Informatics Development and 802: Installation of a Computerised Information System for Nature Conservation.

Mr. Pal BOZO, Chief Information Officer of MERP, the Project Manager of the Contracting Party was responsible for the project preparation, development and implementation.

The large scope of this task required sophisticated preparatory work. Its main aspects included

- the detailed examination of systems and applications available prior to the project

- determination of priority issues to be handled by the new application

- definition of optimum balance between priorities to be solved and funding available

- preparing and announcing tenders for realising the projects

The aforementioned issues had to be co-ordinated among the Centre of MERP and 22 other Central and Regional Authorities for Environment Protection and Nature Conservation all over the country.

As a matter of fact a considerable number of related projects funded from diverse sources have already been realised before. None of them had brought however the desired result of setting up and implementing a system that would have offered a solution to the urgent need of Central and Regional Authorities of MERP for having a common, more or less standard application. Though providing valuable advice concerning how to set up a nation-wide environmental information system they were unable to proceed from the level of system design.

The highest priority of this project has thus been the very implementation of an integrated system according to the instructions defined in the system design that would be the basis of and provide substantial help in the daily work of the staff of Central and Regional Authorities.

Among the projects set up and ordered by MERP in the preparatory phase of its information infrastructure development the reports providing guidelines for the future strategy to be followed by the Ministry have to be mentioned. They were prepared by the DASY Decision- and System Analysis Ltd. and included the following reports:

- Preparation of the information strategy project of MERP

- Analysis of the information centre of MERP

- Analysis of Regional Authorities of MERP

- System design of the information system of MERP

The last report served as the basis for announcing the tenders of the Information Infrastructure Development of MERP including the project of the development and implementation of its Integrated GIS.


2.1. Structure of organisation

MERP of Hungary has three agencies devoted to different aspects of environmental policy as follows:

- Agency for Environment Protection

- Agency for Nature Conservation

- Agency for Regional Policy

The software development concerned the first two agencies.

The Agency for the Environment Protection includes the Supreme Authority for Environment Protection seated in the Ministry itself and 12 Regional Authorities scattered throughout the country. The Supreme Authority of the Agency for Nature Conservation (National Authority for Nature Conservation) has its individual headquarters in Budapest and supervises 9 Regional Authorities for Nature Conservation. Including the Information Centre of MERP there are thus 23 sites where the system has been implemented.

Environment Protection and Nature Conservation Authorities act essentially as professional authorities possessing jurisdiction for issuing first instance decisions and permissions concerning environment pollution and degradation of sites of national value. Second instance jurisdiction is practised by the related Supreme Authorities. The scope of task of Environmental Authorities is strictly restricted to this official activity, whereas for Nature Conservation Authorities there is in fact a place left, even if on limited scale, for collecting and analysing scientific data focusing chiefly on field observation of protected species. These so-called scientific data serve as the basis for issuing decisions and permissions.

In this respect, the main objective of the development and installation of the Integrated GIS of MERP was to work out an information system with GIS functionality supporting efficiently both the official and scientific fields of activity of Environment Protection and Nature Conservation Authorities providing the best possible support for their requirements concerning the capturing, processing and analysis of data.

Given the finite amount of the financial assistance of the European Community MERP has made a very serious effort to find the most cost-effective solution for implementing a system in all sites to be considered. The best alternative was apparently to set up an information centre for each of the concerned agencies of MERP. These are the so-called Thematic Information Centres (TICs) suggested to be pilot sites equipped with high-level hardware and software that can be regarded as models for other authorities.

Selecting the Environmental Authority of Central Transdanubia as the TIC for Environment Protection (hereinafter referred to as EPTIC) was based upon the vicinity of Lake Balaton. As the authority having the largest portion of catchment area of Lake Balaton in its operation area it is responsible with two other Regional Environmental Authorities for implementing the so-called Lake Balaton Environment Management Project regarded recently as the environmental project of highest priority in Hungary. This project involves processing and analysis of an enormous amount of data requiring and eventually using the assets of the integrated system.

As for the Agency for Nature Conservation, the Directorate of the Hortobagy National Park was selected as TIC for Nature Conservation (NCTIC) based on the experience of its staff in digital processing of nature conservation data on one hand and on the considerable value of sites and species occurring in this area on the other hand.

2.2. Related projects

As already mentioned previously, the efficient functionality and implementation of an integrated GIS application in 23 sites of MERP demanded a number of improvements concerning the equipment, network capabilities, basic software and digital maps. Essentially, due to the larger amount of information registered and the need for their up-to-date handling Environment Protection Authorities possess better equipment, more software and more professional infomation scientists in their staff than their Nature Conservation counterparts.

The next passage furnishes some general information on the following related projects:

- Implementation of hardware/basic software for the two TICs

- Establishing WAN and LAN and implementation of hardware/basic software for Regional Authorities

- Implementation of digitised maps for Regional Authorities and MERP

Implementation of hardware/basic software for the two TICs was realised by the Digital Hungary Ltd. Its main objective was to provide them with the necessary tools ensuring efficient GIS support in both workstations and PCs. The related equipment will be specified in the next paragraph.

The establishment of WAN and LAN and implementation of hardware/basic software for Regional Authorities was completed by Albacomp Software Development Corporation. The establishment of X.25 communication ensures smooth data exchange between the 23 sites of MERP, whereas the LAN set up in the specific sites was needed for the operation in client-server architecture. The tasks also included the replacement of obsolete equipment to bring each Regional Authority onto a standard level.

Implementation of digitised maps for Regional Authorities and MERP was realised by the Geometria Systems House Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as Geometria Ltd.) and included digital capture of about 140 1:25,000-scale topographic maps of Gauss-Kruger projection system. The area captured amounts to about 9,000 km2. Features to be captured and attributes to be processed were defined by MERP. Processing of data proceeded according to the traditional methods of getting clean line-work, linking attributes and eventually, processing topology. Features having common boundary were processed as regions. Data sets are provided in ArcInfo format.

Additionally, a number of other digitised maps of different scales and themes can be used by Regional Authorities. Their usability and availability are restricted, however, by their partially insufficient detail and cost.

2.3. Hardware and software environment

With basic software TICs are better equipped than other Regional Authorities. The client/server architecture of TICs incorporates a DEC ALPHA UNIX server as well as five DEC Venturis 575 PCs. TICs were provided with ORACLE 7 RDBMS and ArcInfo 7 GIS. PCs run run-time versions of ORACLE's client programs on DOS/MS Windows. PCs communicate with the server through SQLNet using TCP/IP protocol. ArcView 2.1 is installed on PCs for representing, processing and analysing data on digital maps.

As will be specified in the discussion of the sub-systems, application development was streamlined along the concept that less equipped Regional Authorities have the same opportunity to make use of the majority of its functionality. Consequently, the mapping module of the system is based on ArcView 2.1 and uses the Avenue development environment. ArcInfo will be used for the management and maintenance of digital base maps. AML macros support this operation. ArcInfo on the server can directly be accessed from the PC's ArcView through RPC protocol.

The mutual communication between the ArcView graphic and ORACLE alphanumeric environments is realised through DDL and ODBC protocols.

The funds were not available to equip Regional Authorities with the same tools as TICs. TICs serve as models for them to follow in case of obtaining other financial resources. In the frame of the present project Regional Authorities were provided with a Novell server running with Novell Netware 4.1. Like in TICs ORACLE 7 is the database server and ArcView was installed on a high-performance PC station on DOS/MS Windows.

It must also be mentioned that TICs have both a UNIX and a Novell server.

2.4. Distribution of tasks

The following section presents the development of the integrated GIS of MERP in detail. It was ordered by MERP - Contracting Party. The tender was awarded to three companies acting and co-operating as equal parties as follows:

- Geological Institute of Hungary (MAFI)

- ECOPLAN Environment & Landscape Planning / GIS (ECOPLAN)

- Rudas & Karig Software Development, Trading and Services Ltd. (Rudas & Karig)

MAFI, co-ordinator of the project was responsible for maintaining the contact between the Contractors and with the Contracting Party, carrying out the administrative tasks of the project, providing the ArcInfo platform for development and completing the analysis as well as loading the database of Nature Conservation Authorities.

ECOPLAN was responsible for designing and developing the turn-key Sub-system for Environment Protection as well as its implementation and training in EPTIC. Additionally, it developed an individual module aimed at capturing, processing and analysing data collected in the frame of the Lake Balaton Environment Management Project.

Rudas & Karig Ltd. designed and developed the Sub-systems of Nature Conservation and Register, and completed the integration of the three sub-systems. Except for EPTIC its tasks included also implementation and training.

2.5. Project phases

The project was launched on July 1st 1995 and the actual work finished on May 31st 1996. It was subdivided on 4 milestones according to the following schedule:

- Analysis: July - September 1995

- System design: October - November 1995

- System development and preliminary test: December 1995 - March 1996

- Implementation, preparation of user documentation and training: April - May 1996

Considering the wide scope of the project it had a rather strict schedule mobilising vast human resources. Each phase was closed by a report submitted to the Contracting Party for approval.

The first phase included the analysis of hardware/software resources available at Central and Regional Authorities as well as their requirements concerning the functionality of the system to be developed. Each authority has been personally visited and the results of consultations were recorded in minutes. According to the guiding principle of the project priority was given to the requirements issued by TICs.

The second and third phases were devoted to setting up the design of each of the three sub-systems with the integrated application and to their development, respectively, followed by preliminary tests.

The project was completed by the implementation, further testing, training the users and preparing the user documentation.


3.1. Environment Protection

3.1.1. Objectives

The ultimate objective of developing a system for Environment Protection is to integrate the handling of data pertaining to different, so-called professional systems and to feature the results of their analysis on map supporting decision making procedures. Two major aspects of the development of the system for Environment Protection has to be emphasised:

- It has to satisfy the requirements of EPTIC being the centre for data processing of the Lake Balaton Environment Management Project with two other Regional Authorities.

- The functionalities of the application developed upon those requirements must also be accessible in the system of other Regional Authorities for Environment Protection.

Taking into account these two requirements the Sub-system for Environment Protection supports the following activities of Regional Authorities:

- improvement of environmental data capture

- advanced handling of environmental data

- complex interpretation and statistical analysis of environmental data

- ensuring the handling of georeferenced data

- supporting decisions on environmental rehabilitation by improving the accessibility of data needed

- taking official measures based on reliable assessments

- improving public awareness concerning the environment through more efficient dissemination of environmental information

3.1.2. Professional systems

The activity of Regional Authorities for Environment Protection in Hungary is focused on making the inventory of emissions, issuing permissions and imposing fines related to pollution inflicted by a person or any legal entity called object on the environment. Several inventories - called professional systems - corresponding to different pollution sources have been set up and used at Regional Authorities. Their importance at each Regional Authority is the function of the scope of their activity. They were developed as independent applications by different firms in different systems. Since each of them used its own system for identifying objects, complex questions related to the discharge of different kinds of pollution by the same object could not be assumed. Of these professional systems the Contracting Party selected all to be integrated into the Sub-system for Environment Protection. They are as follows:

- EMIR (Information System for Emission)

This is used for capturing and handling air pollution data admitted by different companies. Admission of air pollution is compulsory in Hungary since 1987.

- VEHUR (Hazardous Waste Information System)

Data collection about companies producing hazardous wastes started in Hungary in 1982. It incorporates a large variety of data on hazardous materials, the companies producing them and detailed information on the type, amount, state and packing of produced wastes on a quarterly basis.

- VIFIR (Hydrogeological Information System)

This includes physical parameters of observation wells, data of hydrogeological registers and hydrogeological recordings.

- VM (Water Quality Data Management and Distributing System)

This incorporates the catalogue of sampling sites, results of the laboratory tests of water samples as well as some derived data including statistical analyses.

- SZFKAT (Register of Sewage-water Sources)

This consists of basic data on water-pollution sources, limit values of pollutants, chemical composition of water samples taken near pollution sources and discharge of sewage-water/year.

- SHATIR (Computer-based Hydrological Data Processing, Storage and Information Distribution System)

This embraces three individual systems with interrelated data structures. They store the databank of hydrological observation stations, store and process hydrological observation data and support short-term, at most monthly evaluation of time series, respectively.


It is the inventory of noise tests and fines imposed.

To develop a system ensuring the integration and integrated analysis of the professional systems three major tasks had to be tackled:

- The systems though all in digital form have been developed by different software and thus have different data structures. There are an immense number of tables and data columns to be handled (300 and 1500, respectively). They had to be integrated into one system.

- Objects representing legal entities (companies, firms, enterprises etc.) had different identifiers in different sub-systems. In order to ensure simultaneous query of different kinds of pollution discharged by the same object a uniform identifier system of those objects was needed.

- In order to represent the results of queries and statistical analysis of data on map the related objects have to be georeferenced.

3.1.3. General approach

ECOPLAN suggested the following solutions for these problems:

- Full integration of data from different source tables has been realised through importing from dBASE into ORACLE tables using FoxPro applications. A full integration of all the data handling functions of the sub-systems into ORACLE was impracticable given the legal background, the schedule and resources of the project. Inventory data will thus further be captured using the original interface and structure of sub-systems. When needed for integrated analysis they will be imported into ORACLE environment for tabular and spatial evaluation and representation.

- The problem of integrating object identifiers was handled through elaborating several interrelated register tables with the fundamental register table of objects. It provides every object with a unique identifier and registers their X,Y,Z coordinates needed for spatial representation.

- Georeferencing of the objects can be made by typing the coordinates directly into the register table of objects or registered indirectly through the georeferencing tool of the application, using a special on-screen georeferencing technique.

Loading the register table of objects and other related tables is a task demanding meticulous and precise work from Regional Authorities (30,000 records for EPTIC). But once completed and duly maintained it allows the simultaneous analysis of different kinds of pollution discharged by the same source or selected groups of sources and its representation on map.

Also the system provides for the first time the possibility of complex environmental impact assessment of user-defined regions, like watersheds, river-corridors, metropolitan areas etc. This capability has a special importance at the Lake Balaton watershed, where the high value to tourism of the environmentally sensitive lake is threatened by diverse types of pollution.

3.1.4. Functionality for handling tabular data

Considering the professional level of staff handling computers at Regional Authorities two user groups can be distinguished:

- A-type users with little knowledge of making SQL queries

A special, so-called "Navigation module" has been developed for them querying the system from an easy-to-use interface. Its function is based on creating special ORACLE VIEWs while importing data from the original sub-systems. Columns of these VIEWs are selected by the users. They represent the most frequently queried information defined in EPTIC and needed for day-to-day work. The "Navigation module" allows querying all the sub-systems according to these columns. Selection can be made upon the following parameters:

- Specifying an area on map or from table

- Specifying factors

- Specifying a time interval

- Specifying a function

A new VIEW can be created upon the results of the query that can be transferred to ArcView via DDE for spatial representation or further selection. Quite naturally, the "Navigation module" does not allow the analysis of data omitted in the related VIEW. The "Navigation module" creates the SQL queries on screen, according to these selections. These queries can then be saved in a "Query library".

- B-type professional users

They are staff members proficient in SQL. They are free to use all advantages offered by SQL and to analyse any type of data imported into ORACLE tables or VIEWs.

The user interface of the Sub-system for Environment Protection is composed of two modules: the ArcView and the ORACLE module. They have to be activated independently. Map initialisation representing the establishment of connection between them through DDE protocol is realised by activating a button in the ORACLE interface. The following passage gives a short description of the main functionalities of the mapping module.

3.1.5. Functionality for managing maps

- Coverage processing

This module is designed for loading coverages available on the server (like the 1:25,000-scale topographic maps digitised in the frame of a related project), coverages deriving from the professional systems as well as those created and maintained by the specific users. The latter will be represented according to the user-defined legend. This module also supports the registration of new coverages and the positioning of raster files.

- Processing of the objects of professional systems

Apart from selection and spatial representation of the objects this is the module supporting their georeferencing i.e. registering their coordinates in the register table of objects by pointing on a map.

- Selection of objects on map

This supports the representation of the results of selections from ORACLE tables on a map. The represented objects can be submitted to further selection giving a new ORACLE VIEW or table. In order to use this module efficiently all records (objects) making up the result of query have to be georeferenced. The select statement issued in the SQL*PLUS environment or in the "Navigation module" results in an ORACLE VIEW that can be transferred to ArcView for representation.

- Processing of thematic maps

This module supports processing of thematic maps, diagrams or tables according to a user-defined legend based on the result of an SQL query resulting in the creation of an ORACLE VIEW.

- Processing of documents

The related set of procedures supports traditional methods for loading, setting up, maintaining, saving and printing of documents including maps, tables, diagrams, legends etc.

- Maintenance

This module is devoted to the maintenance of the list of saved projects, documents and coverages as well as the management of some background ORACLE tables.

3.2. Nature Conservation

3.2.1. Objectives

The Sub-system for Nature Conservation had to handle the following tasks:

- Providing support for Nature Conservation Authorities in their day-to-day official work

- Supporting the collection, processing and analysis of biological data serving as the basis for issuing decisions and permissions

- GIS support for the above activities, representation of the results of queries and analyses on map

In contrast to the Sub-system for Environment Protection there were only a few digital databases used at Nature Conservation Authorities. The majority were developed in NCTIC (Directorate of the Hortobagy National Park). Rudas & Karig Ltd. Used this as a firm basis for software development. Related databases supporting official work of Nature Conservation Authorities (Land and Forest Management) were available in digital format.

3.2.2. General approach

The following passage presents some general tools supporting the whole Sub-system.

- Code Tables

One of the main features of the Sub-system for Nature Conservation is the module for maintaining and inventorying information that can be coded. It is called the Code table maintenance system. Creation of new code items, code tables, their maintenance and deletion obeys special rules ensuring the integrity of the system. One of the main advantages of this tool is its support of maintaining hierarchical code tables allowing thus the subdivision of a code item in a code table into new items in a new code table according to the requirements of the users. Code tables are used first of all for processing biological data (taxonomy, biotopes, geographic locations etc.). Biotopes are registered in five hierarchical code tables from the most general subdivisions to the detailed ones.

- Multimedia system

This supports the linkage of any type of multimedia information (picture, sound, video) to biological observation data or code items.

- Cross reference system

Nature Conservation Authorities use 1:10,000 cadastral and forestry maps to maintain the inventory of protected areas as well as issue first instance decisions and permissions. Apart from local geographic names cadastral and forestry data are often used for georeferencing biological observation data. Most of the maps required are not yet available in digital format. In order to identify the position of biological data in any georeferencing system a cross table has been designed making the correspondence between different geographic locations like land and forestry parcels, nature conservation areas, geographic names. With the progress of digital map production it becomes obsolete and will be replaced automatically by direct georeferencing on map.

3.2.3. Description of modules

The following passage summarises the modules of the Sub-system for Nature Conservation and their functionality.

- Module of taxonomy

This maintains data of different species classified into specific taxonomic groups. The present taxonomic classification includes about 30 hierarchic level. Loading data into this module proceeds according to the instructions of professionals selected for different taxonomic groups. Distribution of rights in modifying and updating these tables is a question of importance. Generally, it is regulated through ORACLE roles distributed in all three sub-systems.

Synonym names can be given to each species. Code tables pertaining to this module include the types of geographic environment of occurrence, degree of protection, frequency of occurrence and the eventual belonging to international conventions for protection. Apart from species sub-species are also registered.

- Module of nature conservation areas

This module serves for inventorying data about nature conservation areas. Related code tables include categories of protection and the names of Nature Conservation Authorities managing specific areas.

- Background data for nature conservation

There are a number of environmental factors influencing the results of biological observations ranging from pedological, geological, hydrological to meteorological data. Some Nature Conservation Authorities make efforts to collect them themselves like the Directorate of the Kiskunsag National Park. Some of the information can be retrieved from other sources. Experts of Nature Conservation have to define the scope and structure of data to be stored in this module. In the frame of the present project meteorological data has been incorporated into the application.

- Module of biological observations

This is the basic module for capturing, storing, maintaining and analysing data of biological observations. The most serious task of setting up this module was that it had to integrate data collected by different methods and with different periodicity. Loading the related database allows query of observation data for different species or taxa for the whole country. A number of code tables support this module including precision and projection system of georeferencing, methods of sampling, biotopes (5 level hierarchic code tables), types of biotopic transitions, state of development of the given species and code tables describing species in water and forest habitats. One of the most powerful features of the system is the tool allowing attachment of specific code tables to specific species. Biological observations are identified and georeferenced by creating shape-files in the ArcView environment.

The following two modules support the official work of Nature Conservation Authorities. They constitute the legal basis of inventorying and maintaining nature conservation areas.

- Land management system

This module maintains data of land parcels and sub-parcels of protected areas. Some of the basic data is collected from the Offices for Land Management belonging to the Ministry for Agriculture. Direct access of these data via network is a problem yet unsolved. This information is supplemented by data specific for nature conservation. Following the political change in Hungary in the late 1980s a lot of protected areas have become private property. Nature Conservation Authorities do not have the resources to buy them back neither can they indemnify owners to leave them unchanged. In order to defend protected areas the up-to-date maintenance of data in this module is a question of highest priority.

1:10,000 cadastral paper maps are used for identifying parcels. Some of them are digitised including a pilot area of NCTIC in Hortobagy. The full functionality provided by the Integrated GIS can be accessed following the digital capture of all related maps.

- Forest Management System

Like the Land Management system it maintains data of forestry parcels and sub-parcels of protected areas. This data is managed by the Office for Forest Management belonging also to the Ministry for Agriculture. Data is available in Turbo Pascal format and is converted into ORACLE tables. Related paper maps are available on 1:10,000 and 1:20,000 scales. With regard to digital map production and the importance of data the same applies as to the cadastral system.

3.2.4. Functionality for map management

This is used to display the results of processing and for analysis of nature conservation data. Like the Sub-system for Environment Protection, it is based on the ArcView graphic and Avenue development environments. Consequently, it manages both coverages and shape files. The power of ArcInfo in maintaining coverages can be exploited in NCTIC.

Coverages available include the 1:25,000 topographic maps processed by Geometria Ltd. They serve as a background for identifying locations of biological observations. The latter are registered in shape files.

Land and forestry management maps of pilot areas are available in ArcInfo format. Efforts will be made in the near future in NCTIC to complete their digital processing on the area of the Hortobagy National Park.

The mapping module supports a number of operations in ArcView. Their detailed specification is provided in the user documentation.

3.3. Register system

This is the third sub-system of the application and supposed to be the future standard application for registering documents in the Authorities of MERP. Although essential for the whole system it has only a limited mapping extension through the opportunity to represent objects, land or forestry parcels or other geographic entities related to the specific document(s) georeferenced in the database.

3.4 Integration of the Sub-systems

Integration of the presented Sub-systems allows spatial analysis of the relationship between different kinds of pollution records discharged by objects and biological observation data. The analysis can be realised in the Sub-system for Nature Conservation. It starts with the selection of the appropriate ORACLE VIEW set up and representing the result of query made in the Sub-system for Environment Protection. Loaded onto a map of the Sub-system for Nature Conservation it can be associated with the result of query of biological observation data through thematic overlay/logical query. The result can be illustrated in the Sub-system for Nature Conservation.


This paper was aimed at representing the large scope of tasks to be solved for setting up a standard application for a Ministry and its Central and Regional Authorities. It illustrated also that Esri products provide a reliable basis for GIS processing of the related data. ArcView proved to be a powerful tool not only for visualising the results of queries but for maintaining georeferenced data as well. It allows simultaneous access and provides the same functionality on workstation and PC. Until additional funds are available TICs can provide Regional Authorities with ArcInfo support.

Chief Information Officer of MERP
Ministry for Environment and Regional Policy
Fo utca 44-50

Telephone: (36-1)4573-369
Fax: (36-1)201-4361

General Director
Rudas & Karig Software Development, Trading and Services Ltd.
Szilagyi Erzsebet fasor 5. I/3

Telephone/Fax: (36-1)316-0506

Tamas RACZ

General Director
ECOPLAN Environment & Landscape Planning / GIS Co.
Corvin ter 3.

Telephone/Fax: (36-1)201-5282
Fax: (36-1)201-6694

Department of Cartography and GIS
Geological Institute of Hungary
Stefania ut 14.

Telephone: (36-1)220-61-94
Fax: (36-1)251-07-03