Esri Federal User Conference Proceedings 2007

The 2007 Esri Federal User Conference Proceedings is a compilation of professional abstracts and presentations delivered January 9–11, 2007, in Washington, D.C. Esri users played a fundamental role in the conference by presenting information on a diverse collection of GIS applications.

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Asset/Facility Management

DISDI Implementations of GIS Panel

DISDI Group Overview
View Presentation [PDF-2.75 MB, 58 pages]
—Hal Tinsley

The DISDI Executive Manager will introduce the Department of Defense (DoD) Installation Geospatial Information and Service (IGI&S) leads from each branch of the DoD. As a joint leadership team, these members collectively represent the newly chartered Defense Installation Spatial Data Infrastructure (DISDI) Group. Each member—Air Force, Army, Marine Corps, and Navy—will provide an overview of their program, success stories, and key initiatives.

DISDI Strategic Direction Panel

DISDI Overview
View Presentation [PDF-1.15 MB, 24 pages]
—Hal Tinsley

As the geospatial proponent for the Department of Defense (DoD) Business Mission Area, DISDI will outline its 2007 strategic goals and status. The presentation will highlight DISDI teaming efforts between the war fighting, intelligence, and business sectors of the DoD to include integrated spatial data model developments and architecture enhancements that satisfy strategic defense mission requirements. In addition, DISDI will highlight how these efforts and newly formed governance bodies help to navigate and influence the development of DoD geospatial policy.

Enterprise GIS for Defense Facilities

Army IGI&S Program Overview
View Presentation [PDF-1.96 MB, 22 pages]
—James Furlo

This presentation will build awareness of the mission, roles and capabilities of the Army's Installation Geospatial Information and Services (IGI&S) program and highlight the ways in which geospatial data and GIS are supporting Army installation management functions.
GEOFidelis Portal
View Presentation [PDF-1.98 MB, 20 pages]
—Roger Welborn

GEOFidelis, the USMC Installation GIS Program, was established to support the people, policies, and information resources necessary to acquire, manage, and sustain installation and environmental geospatial assets (imagery and data) in support of the Marine Corps' mission. To disseminate USMC geospatial information to users, GEOFidelis released the GEOFidelis Portal in June 2006. The portal provides information, documents, and links to news in support of USMC Installation GIS. The major component of the GEOFidelis Portal is the custom map viewer that provides common installation data for all USMC installations. The source of the data is the GEOFidelis Central GIS Repository that has been developed to provide a centralized source of geospatial data. The GEOFidelis Central Repository maintains the Common Installation Picture (CIP) for the USMC. This paper will highlight the functionality included in the portal and the significant advances made within Headquarters Marine Corps (HQMC) utilizing the Central GIS Repository. This includes the expansion of the GEOFidelis Portal and Central Repository to support the visualization of authoritative tabular databases.
USAF GeoBase Enterprise SOA
View Presentation [PDF-2.67 MB, 15 pages]
—Mark McKercher

The HQ ACC GeoBase enterprise SOA implementation is a revolutionary change in how geospatial data is managed throughout the USAF. Leveraging industry best practices for server and data management, the GeoBase Program deployed a worldwide GIS with twenty full production nodes (e.g., USAF Wings, Numbered Air Forces) that collect, maintain and disseminate geospatial data at the installation level and subsequently replicate data to a central warehouse to support visualization to the Global Combat Support System Air Force (GCSS-AF) Portal. Labor intensive tasks such as system administration, data base management, and hardware support that have traditionally been conducted in a production environment are now handled by a core group of specialists within ACC. This administrative change will save the USAF millions of dollars and, more important, provide a more effective war fighting capability.

Existing ACC commercial solutions (e.g., Akamai Data Warehouse) will be expanded to include both unclassified and classified support. The main focus will be to extend to the class environment this industry best practice for data delivery to the entire USAF. This method leverages the Akamai NetStorage capabilities and delivery tools to manage and distribute large content in minimal time through a browser. This capability has revolutionized how the AF delivers its geospatial data, reducing data discovery and capture from weeks to minutes.
USMC Installation GIS Regionalization
View Presentation [PDF-574 KB, 14 pages]
—Roger Welborn

Prior to the United States Marine Corps (USMC) Installation and Logistics (I&L) GIS regionalization effort, GIS was at various stages across the enterprise, with a sizable disparity between the haves and the have nots. The USMC regionalization effort leverages prior geospatial investments to provide those Installations that are the have nots with many of the capabilities that the haves currently possess while not hindering any Installation's growth.

The regional sites will provide such things as centralized data storage and administration, quality assurance (QA), quality control (QC), application support and development, and Web map services. Each Installation will still remain the owner and maintainer of its geospatial data holdings. Commercial technologies such as Citrix and Esri will be utilized as enablers of USMC GIS regionalization.

As part of the regional effort, each Installation will have their geospatial holdings migrated to the GEOFidelis Data Model which is the USMC I&L's interpretation of the Spatial Data Standards for Facilities, Infrastructure, and Environment (SDSFIE). This will allow for the development of QA/QC tools and other applications that can be utilized across the Marine Corps, while providing a foundation for improved data sharing.

Facilities Management Concerning Airfields

Enhancing the FAA's Airport Safety Analysis Capability
View Presentation [PDF-1.37 MB, 20 pages]
—Steven Chase

Before structural or procedural changes are made in or around an airport, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) must perform a risk analysis to determine what impact the changes may have on safety. The FAA currently uses a tool called the Collision Risk Model (CRM) to determine the risk that obstacles on the ground pose to aircraft arriving at a particular runway. The CRM requires a user to manually enter the locations of obstacles relative to each runway, which can be quite burdensome.

MITRE/CAASD developed a prototype called the Safety Assessment Toolset (SAT) to provide the user with a graphical interface to visualize airport, obstacle and terrain data. Using this data, the CRM can be run thousands of times to execute a more detailed risk analysis. The application uses GIS capabilities to display the results and other data.

Using the Esri MapObjects—Java GIS library, MITRE/CAASD was able to rapidly prototype the enhanced safety analysis capabilities needed by the FAA.

Real Property Management

Automated Advanced Acquisition Program (AAAP)
View Presentation [PDF-1.66 MB, 11 pages]
—Arthur Turowski

The AAAP enables building owners to electronically submit/update lease offers and enables GSA to electronically evaluate and rank offers received.

This innovation allows GSA to more efficiently acquire real property leases and to deliver space faster to its customer agencies. To implement this innovation, GSA employed an Esri GIS solution in both the building owner's offer creation/submission module and in the Government's offer evaluation module of the AAAP. When creating the offer, building owners must input the building address into the AAAP so that the AAAP can validate the latitude-longitude coordinates associated with the building address against a GIS mapping database. Once the address is validated, the AAAP assigns latitude-longitude coordinates to the building owner's offer that will enable it to be matched against a customer agency's delineated area requirement. In addition, the GIS solution will identify location amenities, such as restaurants, retail shops, parking garages, cleaners, and banks, and support GSA in its evolution in providing optimal workplace solutions to its customer agencies. In practice, the AAAP's GIS solution has assisted GSA in reducing offer review time from a period of weeks to a matter of seconds and improved the space delivery process for its customer agencies. Finally, the AAAP won the 2006 Achievement Award for Real Property Innovation in the asset management category.


Analytics of Populations

Biogeography Sampling Tool for GIS
View Presentation [PDF-419 KB, 26 pages]
—Eric Finnen

BioGeography's Sampling Tool provides users a means to efficiently sample a population, be it people, animals, objects or processes, in a GIS environment. BioGeography's tool was created for area-based sampling, that is, when the population and component sampling units are defined by known dimensions. Sample selection can be achieved using either a data set defining all sample units or a defined sample area. The latter provides a means to perform probabilistic sampling when the definition of sampling units is impractical.

BioGeography's Sampling Tool has two main functions: (1) to help select a sample from a population, and (2) to perform sample design analysis. When both of these functions are combined in an iterative manner, the tool effectively and simply achieves the goal of sample surveys—to obtain accurate, high-precision estimates of population metrics at minimum cost.

The choice of which design to use depends on multiple factors and available data. Several sampling designs are available, including simple random sampling, stratified random sampling and multi-stage sampling. Data requirements for sample selection can be as simple as a polygon defining the area to be surveyed or as complex as a sample frame polygon data set with strata definitions and strata variance estimates. Sampling design analysis is used to determine the appropriate number of samples required for achieving specific sampling objectives.

Global Affairs

GIS in Humanitarian Affairs

Spatial Data as Strategic Information within PEPFAR
View Presentation [PDF-1.77 MB, 19 pages]
—Nathan Heard

Approximately 40 million people are infected with HIV worldwide. In 2005 an estimated 2.8 million people lost their lives due to AIDS. The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief is a five-year 15 billion dollar program that is active in over 120 countries. PEPFAR funds are managed by the Office of the U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator and distributed by a number of federal agencies, including USAID, HHS, HRSA, DOL, DoD, DOS, the Peace Corps, and the Census Bureau. GIS is a critical tool for the integration of data necessary for coordination in large-scale multi-agency programs. As an example from the case of PEPFAR, combining data from different agencies has allowed PEPFAR to compare the geographic distribution of people infected with HIV and services meant to serve those people. This paper describes how spatial data was identified as a necessary component of strategic information within PEPFAR and provides examples of how GIS is used within the Plan as an essential tool for reporting as well as program monitoring, evaluation and planning.


Collection, Visualization, and Analysis of Information

Data Sharing Between Field Personnel and the HHS Operations Center
—Rob Shankman

Here in the Secretary's Operations Center (SOC) of the Department of Health and Human Services, we are tasked with the dissemination of data from the field to the decision makers in the operations center. This communication has always been difficult for those in the field, especially for the data to be sent to the center in a timely and accurate manner.

With the aid of several tools; WebEOC/MapTAC, a Web portal, and an "in-house" AJAX driven data viewer, we are able to allow all of the staff not located in the SOC the ability to browse the data in the GIS. In addition to these tools we have synchronized to the front display wall in the SOC with the portal to allow real time changes to the wall to be displayed on the portal for those secure users to view. WebEOC users are also able to edit maps created in the SOC that are placed in WebEOC/MapTAC. These edits are viewable in real time in WebEOC and the SOC display wall. This has enabled our users to accurately send information from the field to the SOC in real time, allowing the GIS to get updates with accurate data from the field as soon as possible. Decision makers get information quicker and directly from the field, ensuring more accurate and well-informed decisions. This also allows the decision makers to annotate the maps and have this information immediately reflected in the maps viewed by the users of WebEOC.
Extensions useful for examining geographic patterns of health data
View Presentation [PDF-1.39 MB, 47 pages]
—Dave Stinchcomb

It has long been known that cancer rates vary geographically, due to differences in cancer risk factors, behaviors and access to screening and treatment facilities. We have developed a number of scripts for ArcGIS that enhance the formatting and presentation of health data. We will describe these extensions, including those that (1) supplement the ArcGIS color choices with color pairs recommended for color blind users, (2) calculate rates from counts of cases and populations, (3) smoothe rates by an empirical Bayes algorithm, and (4) read cancer data resulting from queries of the NCI (SEER) cancer registry database and reformat it for easy input to ArcGIS. Although these extensions were developed specifically for cancer data, many of the functions will be useful in other applications.
GIS Collaboration in Support of Refugee Health Activities
—C. Virginia Lee

The GIS program at CDC was asked to assist in the evaluation of a stand-alone program to estimate the population of displaced persons in a temporary settlement in Chad. This presentation will discuss that collaboration and the efforts to develop an unmanned aerial vehicle program in support of public health that grew out of that initial collaboration.

Homeland Security/Emergency Response

Common Operating Pictures Improve Situational Awareness

COP for Support—Integrating SAP for Defense & Security with Geospatial Information
View Presentation [PDF-1.10 MB, 19 pages]

—Jeffery Marshall

Leaders in Defense and Public Security need real-time situational awareness. Providing all relevant incident and resource information on a spatial basis is crucial to the planning and supporting of activities at a moment's notice. The goal is to have a total operational picture—in real time, at all levels, across and between local/regional/national and international government and non-government security and safety organizations, critical infrastructure operators, and the public.

Such solutions should:
  • Manage content and information across boundaries.
  • Allow for the assessment of risk and its visualization.
  • Provide improved decision making tools enabling enhanced synchronization with limited resources.

The COP for Support is an ArcGIS 9.2 map viewer application for the SAP for Defense and Security solutions. It runs within NetWeaver Portal in a dedicated window and is capable of interacting with other portal components via the Enterprise Portal Client Framework (EPCF).

Decision Support for Emergency Management

Enterprise Temporal Web Services in Disaster Management Planning
View Presentation [PDF-631 KB, 13 pages]
—Todd Smith

Integrating temporal geospatial data into an enterprise Esri environment is critical for the disaster management, intelligence, defense, and homeland security communities. This session will detail the framework used to incorporate temporal Web services into an ArcGIS enterprise environment. The deployment of a mobile communications network as part of disaster management planning will serve to demonstrate:
  • Producing geospatial layers from multiple intelligence sources including air- and space-based sensors
  • Merging mobile communications analysis into a custom geospatial layer
  • Support for net-centric operations and service-oriented architectures through an open application program interface (API)
  • Integration with existing enterprise architectures by delivering technology components in any of the following forms: ArcXML, WMS/WFS, XML Web services or HTML
Intelligent GIS: Supporting National Preparedness Goals
View Presentation [PDF-381 KB, 7 pages]
—Tom Wieczorek

The 2005 hurricane season focused significant attention on the need for greater coordination among U.S. emergency response agencies at all levels of government. All levels of government, federal, state, regional and local, are challenged by the complexities involved in coordinating effectively for disasters.

Disasters require highly accurate and up-to-date information, often from multiple and diverse sources. These same disasters demand coordination between many agencies. Local emergency response agencies seeking to support these requirements and the national domestic Homeland Security goals are experiencing an unprecedented urgency for this coordination.

In response a number of national public safety organizations have entered into a partnership for the purpose of enhancing our national preparedness capacity. With a keen appreciation for the importance of geospatial technologies (GIS) to the nation's preparedness goals and the ability of GIS to quickly disseminate information from multiple sources, work on overcoming these challenges has begun.

The National Alliance for Public Safety GIS (NA-PSG) is overcoming the challenges faced by local governments. The task force on standards and credentialing is encouraging standardized approaches for organizing personnel, information, and procedures. These efforts will facilitate development of a robust and clearly defined Public Safety GIS capacity which supports local operational needs and national homeland security preparedness.

Integrating and Serving Data for Emergency Preparedness and Response

Exploring ArcIMS Services to Deliver National Weather Service Datasets in Support of Decision-Makers
View Presentation [PDF-7.63 MB, 69 pages]
—Jack Settelmaier

The National Weather Service (NWS) is collaborating with the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) to explore serving nationwide weather-related (forecasts, warnings, etc.) information. This information is gathered from sources within the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), including the NWS, and is to be served via ArcIMS—Esri's Internet Map Services software. These services will support decision-makers (emergency managers, local/regional government organizations) whose operations benefit from access to GIS-ready information.

We are exploring methods to maximize the efficient delivery of NWS weather information served in GIS-ready formats that will be available to partners and customers via ArcIMS. Our goal is to optimize delivery mechanisms that make it easier to integrate impacting weather information into the operational environment of decision-makers in support of the core mission of the NWS—to protect against life and property losses and to promote commerce.

We'll detail two facets of this exploration: (1) reviewing lessons learned by PSU in integrating temporal rapidly-changing, voluminous weather-related datasets, such as the NWS' National Digital Forecast Data (NDFD) into a relational database environment and developing publicly accessible, GIS enabled, ready to use Internet Map Services utilizing this data; and (2) assessing the evolution of NWS products and services to more seamlessly deliver impacting weather information in GIS-ready formats.
Helping Federal Users Obtain Imagery
View Presentation [PDF-3.53 MB, 24 pages]
—Jeffrey Danielson

The USGS is implementing the President's U.S. Commercial Remote Sensing Space Policy (CRSSP) in partnership with NOAA, NGA, and other Federal civil agencies. NOAA leads the effort to document civil long-term Earth observation requirements. NGA chairs a senior management oversight committee and leads the effort to leverage Federal investments in commercial data and infrastructure, procurements and contracts. The USGS leads the near-term remote sensing data requirements process, with objectives that include:
  • Collecting the near-term land remote sensing data requirements of U.S. Federal civil agencies and providing query and report capabilities to help agencies leverage resources in areas of common interest
  • Providing documented evidence for potential remote sensing funding initiatives
  • Satisfying user requirements with existing data sources where possible
  • Providing the commercial satellite and aerial industry with a snapshot of civil agency needs, thus allowing industry an opportunity to respond with accurate and specific data and services

The current USGS near-term requirements processes are being integrated with other data services to help government agencies meet more of their operational land imaging needs. Once data requirements are entered, searches will be performed to find existing imagery to meet the requirements. Customers will be connected to potential partners and contract vehicles to help acquire a solution to their remote sensing needs.
FEMA Tracking
View Presentation [PDF-5.05 MB, 30 pages]
—Robert Marsters

Based on recent events, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has determined that to be effective in preparing for, responding to, and recovering from catastrophic disasters, that the and the responder communities at large must have a near real-time comprehensive view of assets being delivered in support of FEMA's emergency response mission. During the 2005 Hurricane Season, FEMA was not able to provide real-time information or logistics pertaining to the transportation or shipment status/location of goods and services en route. The inability of FEMA to track and monitor these emergency goods and service providers was largely due to two factors: (1) the complex nature of the response and the tremendous volume of assets and personnel involved; and (2) the inability of the agency to adopt emerging technologies to provide near real-time logistics of emergency goods and services. This is a complex issue for FEMA and requires the use of emerging technologies integrated into the preparedness and response process to work effectively.

This presentation focuses on how FEMA addressed these issues by leveraging the military's IRRIS technology. IRRIS' design includes: a modular design for greater flexibility; detailed infrastructure information (highly accurate road network, bridges, rail-lines); critical facilities; route cameras; detailed mapping; vehicle tracking (in-transit visibility); and real-time intelligent weather.

Wildland Fire Management and Its Impact on Communities

Using a Spatial Decision Support System to Locate Firebreaks in San Diego County
View Presentation [PDF-515 KB, 19 pages]
—Antonio Blazevic

In Southern California, 24 million residents live adjacent to 8.6 million acres of flammable chaparral. State and federal natural resource managers have come together to manage the fuel surrounding communities in the mountain areas of San Diego County. For the fuel reduction project on the Los Coyotes Indian Reservation, a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) was created to determine potential locations for building a firebreak. Data used for the SDSS included elevation, topography, hydrology, fuels, vegetation, and fire history. The SDSS framework was created within the ModelBuilder environment of ArcGIS 9.1. The purpose of using ModelBuilder is to keep the framework simple so that other users who have limited knowledge of the ArcGIS modeling environment can use the model. The model is then run and shows the user the preferred location of the firebreak.

Land and Environment

Environmental Monitoring Applications and Integrated Imagery

Using ArcMap and WMS: Tools for Targeting and Evaluating Environmental Compliance
View Presentation [PDF-16.7 MB, 36 pages]
—Peter Stokely

ArcMap, imagery download services, local geo-spatial data and web mapping services can be effective tools for environmental compliance site inspection targeting and pre-planning of site inspection efforts. This method has been used effectively in environmental compliance and enforcement investigations from CERCLA clean up actions to Clean Water Act enforcement. Using this method, historical environmental contamination sources, surface water flow pathways, discharges of pollutants, and findings of liability can be demonstrated. This paper covers the methods and tools for performing such environmental forensic investigations by combining aerial photography with readily available geo-spatial data sets from state and federal sources. Cases studies where this method has been applied will be presented.

Land Management Applications and Information Sharing via the Web

Gulf Coast Joint Venture Managed Lands Geodatabase
—Mark Parr

Using ArcSDE technology combined with a Web-based data entry form, the Gulf Coast Joint Venture has developed a geodatabase containing an inventory of all managed lands within the Gulf Coast Joint Venture (GCJV) region. The geodatabase contains information on management units, bird nesting colonies, water control structures, and sanctuary zones on national wildlife refuge, state wildlife management areas, federal and state parks, as well as information on land managed by non-profit organizations and private lands. An ArcIMS application has been developed to disseminate this information and provide GCJV partners with the ability to produce maps of their management areas.
How Government can use BLM's GeoCommunicator as a Valuable Tool for Planning and Land Management
View Presentation [PDF-11.3 MB, 56 pages]
—Leslie Cone

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is responsible for cadastral survey, land and mineral use authorization, and resource management of the public lands. The National Integrated Land System (NILS) project provides a common solution for the sharing of land record information within federal, state and local governments as well as the private sector. NILS is a joint project between the BLM and the U.S. Forest Service in partnership with states, counties, and private industry to develop a common data model and a set of software tools for the collection, management, and sharing of land survey data, cadastral data, and land record information.

This presentation will include a demonstration of the NILS GeoCommunicator Web site, which shows cadastral survey and land management information and data from NILS. NILS GeoCommunicator can be used by federal, state and local agencies to learn more about federal leasing activities, mineral rights, oil and gas exploration, rights of ways, lease sale parcels, pastures, allotments, etc., that occur within their jurisdictions. The Web site provides for the distribution and streaming of the Public Land Survey System (PLSS), other survey-based data, and federal surface management agency boundaries, all of which can be used as a basis to improve mapping accuracy. By being able to accurately map and display land data, the BLM is able to more effectively manage lands and ultimately be better land stewards.
The TEUI Geospatial Toolkit: An ArcGIS Extension for Mapping Landscapes
View Presentation [PDF-5.70 MB, 18 pages]
—Timothy King

The TEUI Geospatial Toolkit is an ArcGIS extension created by the United States Forest Service Remote Sensing Application Center that aids resource specialists in mapping terrestrial landscapes. The Toolkit follows a pre-mapping workflow that involves a number of innovative features. These include a Data Provisioning system that allows a user to use polygon data to order a Geospatial Data Package containing up to 33 raster data layers and 18 vector layers including a Natural Segments layer that aids in initial Landscape Stratification. In addition, the TEUI Geospatial Toolkit contains functions that allow a user to create, edit and/or import a Map Unit Design. To aid in stratifying landscapes the TEUI Toolkit offers the ability to create landscape polygons from scratch, import existing linework, or use the aforementioned Natural Segments to initially stratify the landscape. The most powerful functionality of the Toolkit can be found in the Map Unit Validation tools which enable a user to create a variety of statistics on raster data (i.e. aspect, slope, elevation, NDVI) for the polygon data that has been brought into the program. This statistical data can then be viewed as tables and interactive charts to validate the map units created during the Landscape Stratification process. If errors are found when viewing the tables and charts the user can update the polygon data and check the statistical changes in real time.

Leveraging GIS to Improve Ecosystems Management

Developing the Wetlands Data Layer of the NSDI
View Presentation [PDF-717 KB, 18 pages]
—Thomas Dahl

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is the lead federal agency responsible for building the wetlands layer of the National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI). The wetlands layer of the NSDI currently has wetlands geospatial digital data for over 1.9 billion acres of the United States. This data was developed in partnership with numerous organizations and cooperators and is made available over the Internet via the Service's Wetlands Mapper and through The National Map. The wetland digital data is also part of the E-government's Geospatial One-Stop Portal,

The Service continues to modernize and expand its digital data holdings. In partnership with the U.S. Geological Survey, the Service has implemented a National Wetlands Geodatabase to manage and provide via the Internet all available digital wetlands data in seamless format for the conterminous United States, Alaska and Hawaii. This provides resource managers and the public with digital wetland map information that is being used in geographic information systems, as well as assessment reports to address complex conservation issues.
A GIS Management Tool to Reduce Sea Turtle Bycatch
View Presentation [PDF-934 KB, 29 pages]
—Ken Buja

Five species of sea turtles inhabiting the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico are listed as either endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). None of the species have yet met the recovery goals outlined in their respective recovery plans. To help meet ESA recovery goals for sea turtles, NOAA's National Marine Fishery Service (NMFS) is implementing a strategy for sea turtle conservation and recovery in relation to Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico fisheries to reduce incidental capture of sea turtles in commercial and recreational fisheries. A strategic approach evaluating fishery impacts by gear types across state, federal, and regional boundaries will increase management effectiveness.

The professional development of a dynamic GIS for sea turtles to facilitate the implementation of the Strategy is a key baseline need. The development of such a GIS would also assist NMFS in meeting other ESA and legislative responsibilities that require everything from simple maps to in-depth geographic/oceanographic analyses. While there are several efforts that have been undertaken to compile sea turtle datasets into a GIS environment there has been no comprehensive NMFS sea turtle program-wide approach. The development of a fully integrated GIS for turtles would be cross-regional and would serve the national program.

Law Enforcement

GIS in Intelligence-Led Policing

International Street Gangs, GeoSpatial Signatures and the Common Operating Picture
View Presentation [PDF-198 KB, 7 pages]
—Joseph Garofalo

International Street Gangs have become a notable, endemic problem for law enforcement in both major metropolitan centers and in the surrounding suburbs. These gangs dually focus on terror and territory—creating havoc through violent crime, property crime, threats and intimidation. They infect a community, prey upon it, and introduce a criminality that often becomes self-sustaining. This paper will illustrate the use of GIS by the Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) in attacking and attempting to interdict international street gangs. Furthermore, the scope will be national, not local. By applying the use of geospatial signatures—a holistic method where the characteristics of gangs and gang crime are integrated and analyzed in a larger community data context—ICE has been able to develop useful intelligence and information. Furthermore, ICE has prototyped spatially enabling these signatures, distributing them in a Common Operational Picture for more efficient and effective law enforcement. The power of GIS in this context, the methodology behind geospatial signatures, and the key ways in which these geospatial signatures have enhanced ICE intelligence and enforcement capabilities will be addressed in this session.


Integration of capabilities to Provide a Truly "Common" Operational Picture

GIS-Enabled Modeling and Simulation
View Presentation [PDF-1 MB, 27 pages]
—Thomas Stanzione

Current C4ISR and simulation systems use different tools and formats for generating and storing geospatial information. C4ISR systems tend to use geographic information systems (GIS), such as C/JMTK, for this information, while simulation systems use proprietary terrain database formats that are generated from a number of different terrain database generation tools. This leads to problems sharing geospatial information between systems, making mission planning or embedded training difficult, as well as problems maintaining geospatial information as it is updated. A common geospatial database that can be generated with a single set of tools and shared across applications would eliminate these problems and allow higher integration of diverse military systems. Under a contract with the U.S. Army Topographic Engineering Center, MÄK Technologies, along with Esri, is developing a prototype framework for accessing geospatial data from federated geospatial databases directly into M&S applications, utilizing the Esri ArcGIS family of products.
Coalition Interoperability—The C2IEDM/JC3IEDM Solution
View Presentation [PDF-879 KB, 15 pages]
—Patrick McGrane

Full situational awareness is critical to staying ahead of diverse battle space developments and decision making. Standards based applications offer the ability to acquire, view, analyze, and distribute mission critical operational information through GIS and data exchange instruments. In the modern battlefield, operations are no longer conducted by single nations and are now defined by coalition operations. The Command and Control Information Exchange Data Model (C2IEDM) and, very soon, the Joint Consultation, Command and Control (JC3IEDM), have evolved through the work of twenty-four NATO nations over nearly twenty years to facilitate the exchange of information between international and intra-national organizations to support all the necessary content for military and civilian operations. Beyond the data model are definitions for controlling the dataflow in the operational environment. For that purpose the MIP Data Exchange Mechanism (DEM) has been defined, which is, in turn, based on the Army Tactical Command and Control Information System (ATCCIS) Replication Mechanism. This paper will discuss these interoperability standards as well as Systematic's history of fulfilling these demands with COTS based technology—e.g., SitaWare and IRIS Replication Mechanism. COSMOS, FCT, and DEOS NMS are example programs of diverse military systems for coalition interoperability, which use these technologies and will be discussed.
Enhancing ArcGIS Desktop Analysis: Satellites, Sensors and Communication Systems
View Presentation [PDF-189 KB, 9 pages]
—Kevin Flood

The ability to merge temporal geospatial data into the ArcGIS environment will enhance the analysis capabilities across varied use cases: homeland security, intelligence analysis, and emergency response management to name a few. Extending the ArcGIS desktop to include data that analyzes and models relationships of dynamic systems (satellites, land/air/marine vehicles, sensors, and communications or radar systems) seamlessly integrated with ArcGIS leverages all of the Esri technology as well as the Esri GeoDatabase structure so that GIS analysis will not require additional workflows.

This session will demonstrate via use cases the following enhanced analysis:
  • Create temporal geospatial data into ArcGIS, such as satellite ground tracks, sensor footprints, and intervisibility analysis.
  • Read and write the geometry of the temporal objects into an Esri GeoDatabase.
  • Query the temporal objects against any other features the user has in the map document.
  • Animate ArcGIS to view temporal data at a specific time.

The Development of Network Centric Warfare Capabilities Using C/JMTK

Joint Geospatial Enterprise Services—Science and Technology Program
—Daniel Visone

Today's C4ISR systems contain very limited geospatial capabilities that are disconnected from emerging net-centric geospatial technologies and databases. Future battle command and ISR services (i.e., Future Combat System, Distributed Common Ground System—Army) require timely, relevant, accurate terrain situational awareness. A Joint Geospatial Enterprise Service (JGES) capability is required to enable a dynamic, tailorable User-Defined Operational Picture, Situational Awareness, and decision aids.

The JGES Science and Technology program has established an initial net-centric geospatial architecture to enable critical development of geospatial services and provide an early transition of emerging technologies and C4ISR net-centric services; partner with industry to enhance commercial GIS technology to support complex operational needs and gaps; and collaborate with joint network architectures and C4ISR services (including emerging Army tactical C4ISR net-centric architectures).

This paper will discuss the JGES S&T Spiral 1 and 2 efforts and lessons learned, the JGES Spiral 3 experiments, and how Esri technology is being leveraged to meet these requirements.
Visualization of Shared Situational Awareness for Command and Control using C/JMTK
—Chetan Desai

Airborne Web Services (AWS) is a research and development effort which provides the U.S. Air Force's Electronic Systems Center and Command and Control (C2) community with a Net-Centric capability that utilizes airborne networking technology for shared situational awareness between aircraft and ground stations. AWS is designed to satisfy enhanced situational awareness requirements for in-flight air battle managers on the E-3 Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) and E-8 Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System (JointSTARS) along with controllers and commanders on the ground in the Combined Air Operations Center (CAOC) or other IP-enabled communication nodes. The AWS client was developed using Commercial Joint Mapping Toolkit (C/JMTK) and implements the air battle manager's workflows for enhanced decision support for C2 operations and Time-Sensitive Targeting (TST). This paper will describe the design and development of this Net-Centric client and its usage during the Joint Expeditionary Force Experiment (JFEX) 2006. This work includes an overall methodology (design patterns for geospatial visualization in an SOA) as well as C/JMTK-based framework software. C2 data sources are provided through Web services and include: Air Tasking Orders, Blue and Red Force Tracking, Air Tracks, Munitions, Airspaces, Weather, Kill boxes, etc. The paper discusses the AWS client architecture, the use of C/JMTK components, and lessons learned applicable to Net-Centric C2 environments.

System Architecture

Building and Preparing for an Enterprise GIS

Assessing Training and User-Acceptance Requirements for Enterprise GIS Implementation
View Presentation [PDF-127 KB, 14 pages]
—Brianne Emery

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in Utah, with the sponsorship of the Washington Office, is implementing Enterprise GIS throughout the State.

The aim of this report is to provide the BLM with an assessment of the user acceptance issues that will arise with the implementation of an EGIS architecture along with recommendations for how to address user concerns. Additionally, the report provides an introduction to the scope of the training requirements that are needed for BLM staff that will be using EGIS.

Right now, many users are wary of making the switch to EGIS, and this report summarizes their concerns for the managers in order that they can ease the transition as well as gain support from the users. With the implementation of EGIS, users will need additional training, and this report provides training recommendations and outlines the users' expectations.
Enterprise Geospatial Activities in the Bureau of Reclamation MP Region
View Presentation [PDF-411 KB, 11 pages]
—Lorri Peltz-Lewis

The Mid-Pacific Regional office of the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) has been involved in many enterprise geospatial activities over the past five years. This presentation reviews the current activities within the regional office such as the Geospatial Library (GSL), identification of stewardship databases and associated interfaces, and overview of system design and support. Integration with USBR enterprise activities and efforts with the Department of Interior activites, such as Enterprise Architecture, Modernization Blue Print, and the Enterprise Geographic Information Management, will also be discussed.
Enterprise GIS Projects—Challenges and Solutions
View Paper [PDF-102 KB, 7 pages]
—Anil Jayavarapu

Enterprise GIS projects are complex. These projects involve the coordination and communications between multiple parties including stakeholders, project teams, IT organizations, and external vendors. These start with stakeholder interaction and lead to complex techno-functional tasks associated with data conversion/migration, software development, testing, acceptance and deployment. The teams are required to coordinate and integrate the deliverables from internal and external parties in a concerted sequence to achieve overall objectives.

This paper presents a unique process based methodology to establish the configuration management for enterprise scale technology implementation projects. In particular, this paper will cover task assignment and processes for communications, requirements management, environment utilization (development, staging, testing, and production), data loading/merging, data quality assurance and acceptance, backlog posting, software functional testing, software acceptance etc.

Service-Oriented Architecture in the Real World

Collaborative Editing and Analysis of Alternatives using ArcGIS Server, JavaServer Faces, and SOA
View Presentation [PDF-2.85 MB, 34 pages]
—Mike Case

The use of modeling and simulation to conduct analysis of alternatives is increasing in the Army and across the Department of Defense. DoD has adopted a Service Oriented Architecture for the Global Information Grid, an important feature of which is to make data and simulation engines available as services. The Fort Future Installation Modeling and Simulation was developed to use simulations in application domains that include land use planning, master planning, environmental analysis, critical infrastructure, deployment planning, and other military scenarios. The project has developed a capability to run a number of different simulation engines as networked services, each specializing in a relevant application domain, using the same set of scenarios and alternative data. Many of these simulations require geospatial data in their input. New methods and data standards were developed that allow users to collaboratively edit alternatives using Web browsers, submit data to simulations, and present results to the users in a decision matrix with supporting data. This paper focuses on a new approach to keeping track of input alternatives that include geospatial data in which data and services are distributed. A prototype was implemented using ArgGIS Server, JavaServer Faces, J2EE Enterprise JavaBeans, and WebDAV. Examples include manipulation and simulation of roads, utilities, facilities, and process tasks.

Technology Papers

Building and Managing Geographic Data

PLTS Map Atlas Custom Grid
View Presentation [PDF-289 KB, 18 pages]
—Jeff Hayenga

The Esri's ArcMap software was initially focused on creating a single map. Production Line Tool Set (PLTS) for ArcGIS Map Production System (MPS-Atlas) expands ArcMap functionality by providing a method for generating a series of maps. One of the key features of the ArcMap software suite is the ability to easily add static graphic elements to a map to enhance its presentation. The static nature of the graphic elements doesn't lend itself to a series of maps.

Presented herein is a method to add a dynamic grid to an MPS-Atlas map series. This unique functionality was initially developed to create a Map Atlas of the waste sites at the Department of Energy's Hanford Reservation. The grid allows creation of an index tabulating grid cell and map for each waste site. The key concept of a dynamic grid can be applied to any important object, building, road, etc.

The dynamic grid consists of a matrix of row and column polygons and an extents polygon layer. The intersection of a row and column polygon defines a grid cell, similar to a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. The extents polygons layer defines the center of each page. A zoom scale factor is included in the attribute table to identify the extent of each page.

The map series layout starts with a main map data frame surrounded by four grid cell data frames. During the generation of each map in the map series the surrounding grid cell data frames are repositioned to match the main data frame. The reposition function is integral to MPS-Atlas.

Technology Challenges for Integrated Systems

AirGRID: An Innovative Application to Integrate Maps, Documents and Data
View Presentation [PDF-1.28 MB, 21 pages]
—Carolyn Nobel

The Tinker Air Force Base Environmental Management Directorate (EM) has developed the Air Quality Geospatially Referenced Integrated Dataset (AirGRID) that integrates the group's electronic document management system, multiple databases and geographic information system to address their need to process multiple, extensive, and diverse sets of data effectively and efficiently. ArcGIS Engine was utilized to develop a map-based portal that enables users to query multiple environmental databases and process logs, update and create environmental data, search and display electronic documents, visualize air quality modeling data and conduct what-if modeling scenarios. This presentation will demonstrate the AirGRID system and discuss how AirGRID's integration of existing EM environmental data systems allows for more efficient access to data, documents, and maps as well as enhanced data analysis capabilities, including sharing search results between databases, displaying database search results on the map, accessing documents from map features, and displaying map features associated with electronic document search results. System integration and implementation challenges, as well as lessons learned, will also be discussed.
Distributing GIS to the Coast Guard—An Enterprise Solution
View Presentation [PDF-5.93 MB, 40 pages]
—Mike Lakey

Providing GIS data, services, and functionality to United States Coast Guard personnel is critical in supporting the various missions of the Coast Guard. Designing, deploying, and distributing a GIS solution capable of supporting these missions presented the Coast Guard with unique challenges and required creative solutions. This presentation will discuss how the Coast Guard Enterprise GIS Team met this challenge by developing a Web-enabled thin client with the capability to display and manipulate data from many Coast Guard applications and services. Advanced geoprocessing tools and an extensive GIS data warehouse developed by the team enabled a wide variety of users to leverage GIS for their planning, analysis and response needs.
Integrated Access to NOAA Satellite Observations
View Presentation [PDF-1.77 MB, 20 pages]
—Ted Habermann

Satellite data and products evolve through a series of processing levels as they flow from satellites to users. Many efforts to integrate satellite data into GIS systems have focused on grids of parameters calculated from satellite data (Level 3) or on gridded model results (Level 4). This reflects the fact that Level 3 and 4 products generally contain parameters that are useful for many real problems and that the formats are general and increasingly familiar to geospatial tools (i.e., netCDF). We recently examined Level 2 Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data produced by NOAA and used it as input to Level 3 products. This data is point determinations of SST and, as such, are completely compatible with spatial database management systems and traditional GIS clients. These data are being used to demonstrate archive strategies that integrate spatial databases and file systems to provide access to this data using traditional GIS and scientific tools.

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